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Here is an (incomplete) list of some of the most recent publications of members of the UK Cosmology community, for your perusal.

Patrick Peter, Nelson Pinto-Neto, Sandro Dias Pinto Vitenti

The formalism to treat quantization and evolution of cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids is described. We first construct the Lagrangian for both the gravitational and matter parts, providing the necessary relevant variables and momenta leading to the quadratic Hamiltonian describing linear perturbations. The final Hamiltonian is obtained without assuming any equations of motions for the background variables. This general formalism is applied to the special case of two fluids, having in mind the usual radiation and matter mix which made most of our current Universe history. Quantization is achieved using an adiabatic expansion of the basis functions. This allows for an unambiguous definition of a vacuum state up to the given adiabatic order. Using this basis, we show that particle creation is well defined for a suitable choice of vacuum and canonical variables, so that the time evolution of the corresponding quantum fields is unitary. This provides constraints for setting initial conditions for an arbitrary number of fluids and background time evolution. We also show that the common choice of variables for quantization can lead to an ill-defined vacuum definition. Our formalism is not restricted to the case where the coupling between fields is small, but is only required to vary adiabatically with respect to the ultraviolet modes, thus paving the way to consistent descriptions of general models not restricted to single-field (or fluid).

Konstantinos Dimopoulos

A new family of inflation models is introduced and studied. The models are characterised by a scalar potential which, far from the origin, approaches an inflationary plateau in a power-law manner, while near the origin becomes monomial, as in chaotic inflation. The models are obtained in the context of global supersymmetry starting with a superpotential, which interpolates from a generalised monomial to an O'Raifearteagh form for small to large values of the inflaton field respectively. It is demonstrated that the observables obtained, such as the scalar spectral index, its running and the tensor to scalar ratio, are in excellent agreement with the latest observations, without any fine-tuning. Moreover, by widening mildly the shaft in field space, it is shown that sizable tensors can be generated, which may well be observable in the near future.

Emmanuel Schaan, Simone Ferraro, Mariana Vargas-Magaña,

We use microwave temperature maps from two seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTPol) at 146 GHz, together with the Constant Mass CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to measure the kinematic Sunyaev-Ze\v{l}dovich (kSZ) effect over the redshift range z = 0.4 - 0.7. We use galaxy positions and the continuity equation to obtain a reconstruction of the line-of-sight velocity field. We stack the cosmic microwave background temperature at the location of each halo, weighted by the corresponding reconstructed velocity. The resulting best fit kSZ model is preferred over the no-kSZ hypothesis at 3.3sigma and 2.9sigma for two independent velocity reconstruction methods, using 25,537 galaxies over 660 square degrees. The effect of foregrounds that are uncorrelated with the galaxy velocities is expected to be well below our signal, and residual thermal Sunyaev-Ze\v{l}dovich contamination is controlled by masking the most massive clusters. Finally, we discuss the systematics involved in converting our measurement of the kSZ amplitude into the mean free electron fraction of the halos in our sample.

Jeremy Sakstein

The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity, and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass Red Dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories, and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.

Scott Watson

When did the universe thermalize? In this talk I review the status of this issue and its importance in establishing the expected properties of dark matter, the growth of large-scale structure, and the viability of inflation models when confronted with CMB observations. I also present a novel approach to tackling the theoretical challenges surrounding inflationary (p)reheating, which seeks to extend past work on the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to the time of reheating.

L. Wolz, C. Blake, F. B. Abdalla,

We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading HI intensity mapping dataset, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15hr and 1hr field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Masui et al. (2013) and Switzer et al. (2013) covering about 41 square degrees at 0.6 < z < 1.0 which overlaps with the WiggleZ galaxy survey employed for the cross-correlation with the maps. In the presented pipeline, we subtract the Galactic foreground continuum and the point source contaminations using an independent component analysis technique (fastica) and develop a description for a Fourier-based optimal weighting estimator to compute the temperature power spectrum of the intensity maps and cross-correlation with the galaxy survey data. We show that fastica is a reliable tool to subtract diffuse and point-source emission by using the non-Gaussian nature of their probability functions. The power spectra of the intensity maps and the cross-correlation with WiggleZ is typically an order of magnitude higher than the previous findings by the GBT team. fastica is a very conservative subtraction technique and is not able to remove anisotropic noise contaminations caused by instrumental systematics unlike the singular value decomposition method which does not discriminate components according to their statistical properties. We confirm that foreground subtraction with fastica is robust against 21cm signal loss as seen by the converged amplitude of the cross-correlation of the intensity maps with the WiggleZ data.

David Daverio, Mark Hindmarsh, Martin Kunz,

We report on the energy-momentum correlators obtained with recent numerical simulations of the Abelian Higgs model, essential for the computation of cosmic microwave background and matter perturbations of cosmic strings. Due to significant improvements both in raw computing power and in our parallel simulation framework, the dynamical range of the simulations has increased four-fold both in space and time, and for the first time we are able to simulate strings with a constant physical width in both the radiation and matter eras. The new simulations improve the accuracy of the measurements of the correlation functions at the horizon scale and confirm the shape around the peak. The normalization is slightly higher in the high wave-number tails, due to a small increase in the string density. We study for the first time the behaviour of the correlators across cosmological transitions, and discover that the correlation functions evolve adiabatically, ie the network adapts quickly to changes in the expansion rate. We propose a new method for constructing source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann integrators, comparing it with two other methods previously used. The new method is more consistent, easier to implement, and significantly more accurate.

Io Odderskov, Marco Baldi, Luca Amendola

In the current state of cosmology, where cosmological parameters are being measured to percent accuracy, it is essential to understand all sources of error to high precision. In this paper we present the results of a study of the local variations in the Hubble constant measured at the distance scale of the Coma Cluster, and test the validity of correcting for the peculiar velocities predicted by gravitational instability theory. The study is based on N-body simulations, and includes models featuring a coupling between dark energy and dark matter, as well as two $\Lambda$CDM simulations with different values of $\sigma_8$. It is found that the variance in the local flows is significantly larger in the coupled models, which increases the uncertainty in the local measurements of the Hubble constant in these scenarios. By comparing the results from the different simulations, it is found that most of the effect is caused by the higher value of $\sigma_8$ in the coupled cosmologies, though this cannot account for all of the additional variance. Given the discrepancy between different estimates of the Hubble constant in the universe today, cosmological models causing a greater cosmic variance is something that we should be aware of.

Adrienne L. Erickcek, Kuver Sinha, Scott Watson

In standard cosmology, the growth of structure becomes significant following matter-radiation equality. In non-thermal histories, where an effectively matter-dominated phase occurs due to scalar oscillations prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, a new scale at smaller wavelengths appears in the matter power spectrum. Density perturbations that enter the horizon during the matter-dominated phase grow linearly with the scale factor prior to the onset of radiation domination, which leads to enhanced inhomogeneity on small scales if dark matter thermally and kinetically decouples during the matter-dominated phase. The microhalos that form from these enhanced perturbations significantly boost the self-annihilation rate for dark matter. This has important implications for indirect detection experiments: the larger annihilation rate will result in observable signals from dark matter candidates that are usually deemed untestable. As a proof of principle, we consider Binos in heavy supersymmetry with an intermediate extended Higgs sector and all other superpartners decoupled. We find that these isolated Binos, which lie under the neutrino floor, can account for the dark matter relic density while also leading to observable predictions for Fermi-LAT. Current limits on the annihilation cross section from Fermi-LAT's observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies may already constrain Bino dark matter up to masses $\mathcal{O}(300)$ GeV, depending on the internal structure of the microhalos. More extensive constraints are possible with improved gamma-ray bounds and boost calculations from $N$-body simulations.

C. Danielle Leonard, Pedro G. Ferreira, Catherine Heymans

We present a complete derivation of the observationally motivated definition of the modified gravity statistic $E_G$. Using this expression, we investigate how variations to theory and survey parameters may introduce uncertainty in the general relativistic prediction of $E_G$. We forecast errors on $E_G$ for measurements using two combinations of upcoming surveys, and find that theoretical uncertainties may dominate for a futuristic measurement. Finally, we compute predictions of $E_G$ under modifications to general relativity in the quasistatic regime, and comment on the pros and cons of using $E_G$ to test gravity with future surveys.

Andrei Lazanu, Tommaso Giannantonio, Marcel Schmittfull, E. P. S. Shellard

We study the matter bispectrum of the large-scale structure by comparing different perturbative and phenomenological models with measurements from $N$-body simulations obtained with a modal bispectrum estimator. Using shape and amplitude correlators, we directly compare simulated data with theoretical models over the full three-dimensional domain of the bispectrum, for different redshifts and scales. We review and investigate the main perturbative methods in the literature that predict the one-loop bispectrum: standard perturbation theory, effective field theory, resummed Lagrangian and renormalised perturbation theory, calculating the latter also at two loops for some triangle configurations. We find that effective field theory succeeds in extending the range of validity furthest into the mildly non-linear regime, albeit at the price of free extra parameters requiring calibration on simulations. For the more phenomenological halo model, we confirm that despite its validity in the deeply non-linear regime it has a deficit of power on intermediate scales, which worsens at higher redshifts; this issue is ameliorated, but not solved, by combined halo-perturbative models. We show from simulations that in this transition region there is a strong squeezed bispectrum component that is significantly underestimated in the halo model at earlier redshifts. We thus propose a phenomenological method for alleviating this deficit, which we develop into a simple phenomenological `three-shape' benchmark model based on the three fundamental shapes we have obtained from studying the halo model. When calibrated on the simulations, this three-shape benchmark model accurately describes the bispectrum on all scales and redshifts considered, providing a prototype bispectrum HALOFIT-like methodology that could be used to describe and test parameter dependencies.

Chrisanthi Praki, Gert Aarts

Following a recent lattice study of nucleon parity doubling at finite temperature from the computation of the two-point nucleon correlators, we study the spectral functions of free nucleons at finite temperature. Spectral densities in the continuum are presented along with a comparison to (free) results on the lattice. Particular attention is given to lattice artefacts at higher energies.

Gert Aarts, Chris Allton, Simon Hands,

The spectrum of nucleons and their parity partners is studied as a function of temperature spanning the deconfinement transition. We analyse our results using the correlation functions directly, exponential fits in the hadronic phase, and the Maximum Entropy Method. These techniques all indicate that there is degeneracy in the parity partners' channels in the deconfined phase. This is in accordance with the expectation that there is parity doubling and chiral symmetry in the deconfined phase. In the hadronic phase, we also find that the nucleon ground state is largely independent of temperature, whereas there are substantial temperature effects in the negative parity channel. All results are obtained using our FASTSUM 2+1 flavour ensembles.

Philippe Brax, Clare Burrage, Anne-Christine Davis

We analyse the speed of gravitational waves in coupled Galileon models with an equation of state $\omega_\phi=-1$ now and a ghost-free Minkowski limit. We find that the gravitational waves propagate much faster than the speed of light unless these models are small perturbations of cubic Galileons and the Galileon energy density is sub-dominant to a dominant cosmological constant. In this case, the binary pulsar bounds on the speed of gravitational waves can be satisfied and the equation of state can be close to -1 when the coupling to matter and the coefficient of the cubic term of the Galileon Lagrangian are related. This severely restricts the allowed cosmological behaviour of Galileon models and we are forced to conclude that Galileons with a stable Minkowski limit cannot account for the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe on their own. Moreover any sub-dominant Galileon component of our universe must be dominated by the cubic term. For such models with gravitons propagating faster than the speed of light, the gravitons become potentially unstable and could decay into photon pairs. They could also emit photons by Cerenkov radiation. We show that the decay rate of such speedy gravitons into photons and the Cerenkov radiation are in fact negligible. Moreover the time delay between the gravitational signal and light emitted by explosive astrophysical events could serve as a confirmation that a modification of gravity acts on the largest scales of the Universe.

Paul Hunt, Subir Sarkar

We reconstruct the power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations by applying a well-validated non-parametric technique employing Tikhonov regularisation to the first data release from the Planck satellite, as well as data from the ground-based ACT and SPT experiments, the WiggleZ galaxy redshift survey, the CFHTLenS tomographic weak lensing survey, and spectral analysis of the 'Lyman-alpha forest'. Inclusion of the additional data sets improves the reconstruction on small spatial scales. The reconstructed scalar spectrum (assuming the standard LCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at k < 5 x 10^-4 Mpc^-1 and several ~2-3 sigma features, of which two at wavenumber k/Mpc^-1 ~ 0.0018 and 0.057 had been seen already in WMAP data. A higher significance ~4 sigma feature at k ~ 0.12 Mpc^-1 is indicated by Planck data, but may be sensitive to the systematic uncertainty around multipole l ~ 1800 in the 217x217 GHz cross-spectrum. In any case accounting for the 'look elsewhere' effect drops its global significance to ~2 sigma. Adding the preliminary detection of a primordial B-mode polarisation signal by BICEP2 allows reconstruction of the tensor power spectrum as well, however its spectral index has a slope opposite to that expected from slow-roll inflation, thus further implicating its likely origin as Galactic dust emission.

H. F. Gruetjen, J. R. Fergusson, M. Liguori, E. P. S. Shellard

The direct evaluation of manifestly optimal, cut-sky CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimators is numerically very costly, due to the presence of inverse-covariance filtering operations. This justifies the investigation of alternative approaches. In this work, we mostly focus on an inpainting algorithm that was introduced in recent CMB analyses to cure cut-sky suboptimalities of bispectrum estimators. First, we show that inpainting can equally be applied to the problem of unbiased estimation of power spectra. We then compare the performance of a novel inpainted CMB temperature power spectrum estimator to the popular apodised pseudo-$C_l$ (PCL) method and demonstrate, both numerically and with analytic arguments, that inpainted power spectrum estimates significantly outperform PCL estimates. Finally, we study the case of cut-sky bispectrum estimators, comparing the performance of three different approaches: inpainting, apodisation and a novel low-l leaning scheme. Providing an analytic argument why the local shape is typically most affected we mainly focus on local type non-Gaussianity. Our results show that inpainting allows to achieve optimality also for bispectrum estimation, but interestingly also demonstrate that appropriate apodisation, in conjunction with low-l cleaning, can lead to comparable accuracy.

Nima Sharifi-Mood, Ali Mozaffari, Ubaldo Córdova-Figueroa

The dynamics and pair trajectory of two self-propelled colloids are reported. The autonomous motions of the colloids are due to a catalytic chemical reaction taking place asymmetrically on their surfaces that generates a concentration gradient of interactive solutes around the particles and actuate particle propulsion. We consider two spherical particles with symmetric catalytic caps extending over the local polar angles $\theta^1_{cap}$ and $\theta^2_{cap}$ from the centers of active sectors in an otherwise quiescent fluid. A combined analytical-numerical technique was developed to solve the coupled mass transfer equation and the hydrodynamics in the Stokes flow regime. The ensuing pair trajectory of the colloids is controlled by the reacting coverages $\theta^j_{cap}$ and their initial relative orientation with respect to each other. Our analysis indicates two possible scenarios for pair trajectories of catalytic self-propelled particles: either the particles approach, come into contact and assemble or they interact and move away from each other (escape). For arbitrary motions of the colloids, it is found that the direction of particle rotations is the key factor in determining the escape or assembly scenario. Based on the analysis, a phase diagram is sketched for the pair trajectory of the catalytically active particles as a function of active coverages and their initial relative orientations. We believe this study has important implications in elucidation of collective behaviors of auotophoretically self-propelled colloids.

Ue-Li Pen, Neil Turok

We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations, of the kind observed in great detail on large scales today, it also leads to the production of shock waves in the radiation fluid of the very early universe. At very early epochs, $1$ GeV$<T<10^{7}$ GeV, assuming standard model physics, viscous damping is negligible and nonlinear effects turn acoustic waves into shocks after $\sim 10^4$ oscillations. The resulting scale-invariant network of shocks provides a natural mechanism for creating significant departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as primordial vorticity and gravitational waves.

B. De Marco, G. Ponti, T. Muñoz-Darias, K. Nandra

We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous RXTE observations to obtain broad-band energy coverage of both the disc and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability signal-to-noise ratio (e.g. typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (~0.05-9 Hz) we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power law component, already well-known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disc variability. At low-frequencies (long time scales) the disc component always leads the power law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high-frequencies (short time scales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disc-fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically-thick disc where reprocessing occurs, gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disc truncation.

Carlo R. Contaldi

Correlations of polarisation components in the coordinate frame are a natural basis for searches of parity-violating modes in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This fact can be exploited to build estimators of parity-violating modes that are local and robust with respect to partial-sky coverage or inhomogeneous weighting. As an example application of a method based on these ideas we develop a peak stacking tool that isolates the signature of parity-violating modes. We apply the tool to Planck maps and obtain a constraint on the monopole of the polarisation rotation angle $\alpha=0.31\pm 0.23$. We also demonstrate how the tool can be used as a local method for reconstructing maps of direction dependent rotation $\alpha (\hat n)$.

Nick E. Mavromatos

The Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymmetric tensor field arises naturally in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. Nevertheless, the respective low-energy field theory action, in which, for reasons of gauge invariance, the only dependence on the KR field is through its field strength, constitutes an interesting model \emph{per se}. In this context, the KR field strength also acts as a totally antisymmetric torsion field, while in four space-time dimensions is \emph{dual} to an (KR) axion-like pseudoscalar field. In this context, we review here first the r\^ole of quantum fluctuations of the KR axion on the generation of Majorana mass for neutrinos, via a mixing with ordinary axions that may exist in the theory as providers of dark matter candidates. Then we proceed to discuss the r\^ole of constant in time (thus Lorentz violating) KR torsion backgrounds, that may exist in the early Universe but are completely negligible today, on inducing Leptogenesis by means of \emph{tree-level} CP violating decays of Right Handed Massive Majorana neutrinos in the presence of such H-torsion backgrounds. Some speculations regarding microscopic D-brane world models, where such scenarios may be realised, are also given.

Christophe Ringeval, Daisuke Yamauchi, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Francois R. Bouchet

Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = O(1) x 10^(-6) match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.

Elizabeth Winstanley

According to the no-hair conjecture, equilibrium black holes are simple objects, completely determined by global charges which can be measured at infinity. This is the case in Einstein-Maxwell theory due to beautiful uniqueness theorems. However, the no-hair conjecture is not true in general, and there is now a plethora of matter models possessing hairy black hole solutions. In this note we focus on one such matter model: Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory, and restrict our attention to four-dimensional, static, non-rotating black holes for simplicity. We outline some of the menagerie of EYM solutions in both asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We attempt to make sense of this black hole zoo in terms of Bizon's modified no-hair conjecture.

Christian G. Boehmer, Nicola Tamanini, Matthew Wright

A new Lagrangian framework has recently been proposed to describe interactions between relativistic perfect fluids and scalar fields. In this paper we investigate the Einstein static universe in this new class of theories, which have been named Scalar-Fluid theories. The stability of the static solutions to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous perturbations is analysed deriving the relevant cosmological perturbation equations at the linear order. We can find several configurations corresponding to an Einstein static universes which are stable against inhomogeneous perturbations, but unstable against homogeneous perturbations. This shows the possible applications of Scalar-Fluid theories to the inflationary emergent universe scenario.

Ana Achúcarro, Pablo Ortiz, Kepa Sousa

We revisit the stability of the complex structure moduli in the large volume regime of type-IIB flux compactifications. We argue that when the volume is not exponentially large, such as in K\"ahler uplifted dS vacua, the quantum corrections to the tree-level mass spectrum can induce tachyonic instabilities in this sector. We discuss a Random Matrix Theory model for the classical spectrum of the complex structure fields, and derive a new stability bound involving the compactification volume and the (very large) number of moduli. We also present a new class of vacua for this sector where the mass spectrum presents a finite gap, without invoking large supersymmetric masses. At these vacua the complex structure sector is protected from tachyonic instabilities even at non-exponential volumes. A distinguishing feature is that all fermions in this sector are lighter than the gravitino.

Steffen Gielen, Neil Turok

We study the quantum cosmology of a universe with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. For FRW backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. We find the evolution to describe a "perfect bounce," in which the universe passes smoothly through the singularity. The Feynman path integral amplitude is precisely that of a relativistic oscillator, for which the scale factor of the universe is the time and the scalar fields are the spatial coordinates. This picture provides natural, unitary quantum mechanical evolution across a bounce. We also study the quantum evolution of anisotropies and of inhomogeneous perturbations, at linear and nonlinear order. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths.

Geraint J. A. Harker, Jordan Mirocha, Jack O. Burns, Jonathan R. Pritchard

One approach to extracting the global 21-cm signal from total-power measurements at low radio frequencies is to parametrize the different contributions to the data and then fit for these parameters. We examine parametrizations of the 21-cm signal itself, and propose one based on modelling the Lyman-alpha background, IGM temperature and hydrogen ionized fraction using tanh functions. This captures the shape of the signal from a physical modelling code better than an earlier parametrization based on interpolating between maxima and minima of the signal, and imposes a greater level of physical plausibility. This allows less biased constraints on the turning points of the signal, even though these are not explicitly fit for. Biases can also be alleviated by discarding information which is less robustly described by the parametrization, for example by ignoring detailed shape information coming from the covariances between turning points or from the high-frequency parts of the signal, or by marginalizing over the high-frequency parts of the signal by fitting a more complex foreground model. The fits are sufficiently accurate to be usable for experiments gathering 1000 h of data, though in this case it may be important to choose observing windows which do not include the brightest areas of the foregrounds. Our assumption of pointed, single-antenna observations and very broad-band fitting makes these results particularly applicable to experiments such as the Dark Ages Radio Explorer, which would study the global 21-cm signal from the clean environment of a low lunar orbit, taking data from the far side.

Thomas E. Collett, David J. Bacon

Compound strong gravitational lensing is a rare phenomenon, but a handful of such lensed systems are likely to be discovered in forthcoming surveys. In this work, we use a double SIS lens model to analytically understand how the properties of the system impact image multiplicity for the final source. We find that up to six images of a background source can form, but only if the second lens is multiply imaged by the first and the Einstein radius of the second lens is comparable to, but does not exceed that of the first. We then build a model of compound lensing masses in the Universe, using SIE lenses, and assess how the optical depth for multiple imaging by a galaxy-galaxy compound lens varies with source redshift. For a source redshift of 4, we find optical depths of $6 \times 10^{-6}$ for multiple imaging and $5 \times 10^{-8}$ for multiplicity of 6 or greater. We find that extreme magnifications are possible, with magnifications of 100 or more for $6 \times 10^{-9}$ of $z=10$ sources with 0.1 kpc radii. We show some of the image configurations that can be generated by compound lenses, and demonstrate that they are qualitatively different to those generated by single-plane lenses; dedicated compound lens finders will be necessary if these systems are to be discovered in forthcoming surveys.

Anthony Ashmore, Daniel Waldram

In this paper we define the analogue of Calabi--Yau geometry for generic $D=4$, $\mathcal{N}=2$ flux backgrounds in type II supergravity and M-theory. We show that solutions of the Killing spinor equations are in one-to-one correspondence with integrable, globally defined structures in $E_{7(7)}\times\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry. Such "exceptional Calabi--Yau" geometries are determined by two generalised objects that parametrise hyper- and vector-multiplet degrees of freedom and generalise conventional complex, symplectic and hyper-Kahler geometries. The integrability conditions for both hyper- and vector-multiplet structures are given by the vanishing of moment maps for the "generalised diffeomorphism group" of diffeomorphisms combined with gauge transformations. We give a number of explicit examples and discuss the structure of the moduli spaces of solutions. We then extend our construction to $D=5$ and $D=6$ flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges, where similar structures appear, and finally discuss the analogous structures in $O(d,d)\times\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry.

Robert L. Schuhmann, Benjamin Joachimi, Hiranya V. Peiris

We present a method to transform multivariate unimodal non-Gaussian posterior probability densities into approximately Gaussian ones via non-linear mappings, such as Box--Cox transformations and generalisations thereof. This permits an analytical reconstruction of the posterior from a point sample, like a Markov chain, and simplifies the subsequent joint analysis with other experiments. This way, a multivariate posterior density can be reported efficiently, by compressing the information contained in MCMC samples. Further, the model evidence integral (i.e. the marginal likelihood) can be computed analytically. This method is analogous to the search for normal parameters in the cosmic microwave background, but is more general. The search for the optimally Gaussianising transformation is performed computationally through a maximum-likelihood formalism; its quality can be judged by how well the credible regions of the posterior are reproduced. We demonstrate that our method outperforms kernel density estimates in this objective. Further, we select marginal posterior samples from Planck data with several distinct strongly non-Gaussian features, and verify the reproduction of the marginal contours. To demonstrate evidence computation, we Gaussianise the joint distribution of data from weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), for different cosmological models, and find a preference for flat $\Lambda$CDM. Comparing to values computed with the Savage-Dickey density ratio, and Population Monte Carlo, we find good agreement of our method within the spread of the other two.

Franz Elsner, Boris Leistedt, Hiranya V. Peiris

Measuring the angular clustering of galaxies as a function of redshift is a powerful method for tracting information from the three-dimensional galaxy distribution. The precision of such measurements will dramatically increase with ongoing and future wide-field galaxy surveys. However, these are also increasingly sensitive to observational and astrophysical contaminants. Here, we study the statistical properties of three methods proposed for controlling such systematics - template subtraction, basic mode projection, and extended mode projection - all of which make use of externally supplied template maps, designed to characterise and capture the spatial variations of potential systematic effects. Based on a detailed mathematical analysis, and in agreement with simulations, we find that the template subtraction method in its original formulation returns biased estimates of the galaxy angular clustering. We derive closed-form expressions that should be used to correct results for this shortcoming. Turning to the basic mode projection algorithm, we prove it to be free of any bias, whereas we conclude that results computed with extended mode projection are biased. Within a simplified setup, we derive analytical expressions for the bias and discuss the options for correcting it in more realistic configurations. Common to all three methods is an increased estimator variance induced by the cleaning process, albeit at different levels. These results enable unbiased high-precision clustering measurements in the presence of spatially-varying systematics, an essential step towards realising the full potential of current and planned galaxy surveys.

Adrian Liu, Jonathan R. Pritchard, Rupert Allison,

Amongst standard model parameters that are constrained by cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations, the optical depth $\tau$ stands out as a nuisance parameter. While $\tau$ provides some crude limits on reionization, it also degrades constraints on other cosmological parameters. Here we explore how 21 cm cosmology---as a direct probe of reionization---can be used to independently predict $\tau$ in an effort to improve CMB parameter constraints. We develop two complementary schemes for doing so. The first uses 21 cm power spectrum observations in conjunction with semi-analytic simulations to predict $\tau$. The other uses global 21 cm measurements to directly constrain low redshift (post-reheating) contributions to $\tau$ in a relatively model-independent way. Forecasting the performance of the upcoming Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array, we find that the marginalized $68\%$ confidence limit on $\tau$ can be reduced to $\pm 0.0015$ for a reionization scenario tuned to fit Planck's TT+lowP dataset, and to $\pm 0.00083$ for Planck's TT,TE,EE+lowP+lensing+ext dataset, assuming early 21 cm data confirm and refine astrophysical models of reionization. These results are particularly effective at breaking the CMB degeneracy between $\tau$ and the amplitude of the primordial fluctuation spectrum $A_s$, with errors on $\ln (10^{10} A_s)$ reduced by a factor of four for both datasets. Stage 4 CMB constraints on the neutrino mass sum are also improved, with errors reduced to $12\,\textrm{meV}$ regardless of whether CMB experiments can precisely measure the reionization bump in polarization power spectra. Observations of the 21 cm line are therefore capable of improving not only our understanding of reionization astrophysics, but also of cosmology in general.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

Elliptic flow (v_{2}) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 7.7-62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at sqrt{s_{NN}}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies we observe a similar relative v_{2} baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v_{2} for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with AMPT calculations and fit with a Blast Wave model.

Martin Bucher, Benjamin Racine, Bartjan van Tent

We describe the details of the binned bispectrum estimator as used for the official 2013 and 2015 analyses of the temperature and polarization CMB maps from the ESA Planck satellite. The defining aspect of this estimator is the determination of a map bispectrum (3-point correlator) that has been binned in harmonic space. For a parametric determination of the non-Gaussianity in the map (the so-called fNL parameters), one takes the inner product of this binned bispectrum with theoretically motivated templates. However, as a complementary approach one can also smooth the binned bispectrum using a variable smoothing scale in order to suppress noise and make coherent features stand out above the noise. This allows one to look in a model-independent way for any statistically significant bispectral signal. This approach is useful for characterizing the bispectral shape of the galactic foreground emission, for which a theoretical prediction of the bispectral anisotropy is lacking, and for detecting a serendipitous primordial signal, for which a theoretical template has not yet been put forth. Both the template-based and the non-parametric approaches are described in this paper.

Mar Bastero-Gil, Arjun Berera, Nico Kronberg

Warm inflation includes inflaton interactions with other fields throughout the inflationary epoch instead of confining such interactions to a distinct reheating era. Previous investigations have shown that, when certain constraints on the dynamics of these interactions and the resultant radiation bath are satisfied, a low-momentum-dominated dissipation coefficient $\propto T^3/m_\chi^2$ can sustain an era of inflation compatible with CMB observations. In this work, we extend these analyses by including the pole-dominated dissipation term $\propto \sqrt{m_\chi T} \exp(-m_\chi/T)$. We find that, with this enhanced dissipation, certain models, notably the quadratic hilltop potential, perform significantly better. Specifically, we can achieve 50 e-folds of inflation and a spectral index compatible with Planck data while requiring fewer mediator field ($O(10^4)$ for the quadratic hilltop potential) and smaller coupling constants, opening up interesting model-building possibilities. We also highlight the significance of the specific parametric dependence of the dissipative coefficient which could prove useful in even greater reduction in field content.

S. Jouvel, T. Delubac, J. Comparat,

We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\% and 68\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6<z<1.2, for the most secure spectroscopic redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

Josquin Errard, Stephen M. Feeney, Hiranya V. Peiris, Andrew H. Jaffe

[Abridged] Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets.

Boris Leistedt, Jason D. McEwen, Thomas D. Kitching, Hiranya V. Peiris

We construct the spin flaglet transform, a wavelet transform to analyse spin signals in three dimensions. Spin flaglets can probe signal content localised simultaneously in space and frequency and, moreover, are separable so that their angular and radial properties can be controlled independently. They are particularly suited to analysing of cosmological observations such as the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies. Such observations have a unique 3D geometrical setting since they are natively made on the sky, have spin angular symmetries, and are extended in the radial direction by additional distance or redshift information. Flaglets are constructed in the harmonic space defined by the Fourier-Laguerre transform, previously defined for scalar functions and extended here to signals with spin symmetries. Thanks to various sampling theorems, both the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are theoretically exact when applied to band-limited signals. In other words, in numerical computations the only loss of information is due to the finite representation of floating point numbers. We develop a 3D framework relating the weak lensing power spectrum to covariances of flaglet coefficients. We suggest that the resulting novel flaglet weak lensing estimator offers a powerful alternative to common 2D and 3D approaches to accurately capture cosmological information. While standard weak lensing analyses focus on either real or harmonic space representations (i.e., correlation functions or Fourier-Bessel power spectra, respectively), a wavelet approach inherits the advantages of both techniques, where both complicated sky coverage and uncertainties associated with the physical modelling of small scales can be handled effectively. Our codes to compute the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are made publicly available.

Jason D. McEwen, Boris Leistedt, Martin Büttner,

We construct a directional spin wavelet framework on the sphere by generalising the scalar scale-discretised wavelet transform to signals of arbitrary spin. The resulting framework is the only wavelet framework defined natively on the sphere that is able to probe the directional intensity of spin signals. Furthermore, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets support the exact synthesis of a signal on the sphere from its wavelet coefficients and satisfy excellent localisation and uncorrelation properties. Consequently, directional spin scale-discretised wavelets are likely to be of use in a wide range of applications and in particular for the analysis of the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We develop new algorithms to compute (scalar and spin) forward and inverse wavelet transforms exactly and efficiently for very large data-sets containing tens of millions of samples on the sphere. By leveraging a novel sampling theorem on the rotation group developed in a companion article, only half as many wavelet coefficients as alternative approaches need be computed, while still capturing the full information content of the signal under analysis. Our implementation of these algorithms is made publicly available.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim,

We use Planck data to detect the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect and the infrared emission from the galaxies that make up the the cosmic infrared background (CIB). We first perform a stacking analysis towards Planck-confirmed galaxy clusters. We detect infrared emission produced by dusty galaxies inside these clusters and demonstrate that the infrared emission is about 50% more extended than the tSZ effect. Modelling the emission with a Navarro--Frenk--White profile, we find that the radial profile concentration parameter is $c_{500} = 1.00^{+0.18}_{-0.15}$. This indicates that infrared galaxies in the outskirts of clusters have higher infrared flux than cluster-core galaxies. We also study the cross-correlation between tSZ and CIB anisotropies, following three alternative approaches based on power spectrum analyses: (i) using a catalogue of confirmed clusters detected in Planck data; (ii) using an all-sky tSZ map built from Planck frequency maps; and (iii) using cross-spectra between Planck frequency maps. With the three different methods, we detect the tSZ-CIB cross-power spectrum at significance levels of (i) 6 $\sigma$, (ii) 3 $\sigma$, and (iii) 4 $\sigma$. We model the tSZ-CIB cross-correlation signature and compare predictions with the measurements. The amplitude of the cross-correlation relative to the fiducial model is $A_{\rm tSZ-CIB}= 1.2\pm0.3$. This result is consistent with predictions for the tSZ-CIB cross-correlation assuming the best-fit cosmological model from Planck 2015 results along with the tSZ and CIB scaling relations.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim,

We present the 8th Full Focal Plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, comprising $10^4$ mission realizations reduced to about $10^6$ maps. The resulting maps incorporate the dominant instrumental, scanning, and data analysis effects; remaining subdominant effects will be included in future updates. Generated at a cost of some 25 million CPU-hours spread across multiple high-performance-computing (HPC) platforms, FFP8 is used for the validation and verification of analysis algorithms, as well as their implementations, and for removing biases from and quantifying uncertainties in the results of analyses of the real data.

Prado Martin-Moruno, Nelson J. Nunes, Francisco S. N. Lobo

In the context of Horndeski cosmologies, we consider a dynamical adjustment mechanism able to screen any value of the vacuum energy of the matter fields leading to a fixed de Sitter geometry. Thus, we present the most general scalar-tensor cosmological models without higher than second order derivatives in the field equation that have a fixed spatially flat de Sitter critical point for any kind of material content or vacuum energy. These models allow us to understand the current accelerated expansion of the universe as the result of the evolution towards the critical point when it is an attractor.

Marco de Cesare, Maria Vittoria Gargiulo, Mairi Sakellariadou

We consider an extension of WDW minisuperpace cosmology with additional interaction terms that preserve the linear structure of the theory. General perturbative methods are developed and applied to known semiclassical solutions for a closed Universe filled with a massless scalar. The exact Feynman propagator of the free theory is derived by means of a conformal transformation in minisuperspace. As an example, a stochastic interaction term is considered and first order perturbative corrections are computed. It is argued that such an interaction can be used to describe the interaction of the cosmological background with the microscopic d.o.f. of the gravitational field. A Helmoltz-like equation is considered for the case of interactions that do not depend on the internal time and the corresponding Green's kernel is obtained exactly.The possibility of linking this approach to fundamental theories of Quantum Gravity is investigated.

Jeremy Sakstein, Sarunas Verner

The late-time cosmology of disformal gravity theories is studied in the Jordan frame using both dynamical systems methods, and by finding approximate solutions. We find that, either the disformal effects are irrelevant, or the universe evolves towards a phantom phase where the equation of state of dark energy is $-3$, in strong tension with observations. There is a marginal case where the asymptotic state of the universe depends on the model parameters and de-Sitter solutions can be obtained.

J. Comparat, T. Delubac, S. Jouvel,

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) will observe approximately 270,000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to measure the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation standard ruler (BAO) at redshift 0.9. To test different ELG selection algorithms, based on data from several imaging surveys, 9,000 spectra were observed with the SDSS spectrograph as a pilot survey. First, we provide a detailed description of each target selection algorithm tested. Then, using visual inspection and redshift quality flags, we find that the automated spectroscopic redshifts assigned by the pipeline meet the quality requirements for a robust BAO measurement. Also, we show the correlations between sky emission, signal-to-noise ratio in the emission lines and redshift error. As a result, we provide robust redshift distributions for the different target selection schemes tested. Finally, we infer two optimal target selection algorithms to be applied on DECam photometry that fulfill the eBOSS survey efficiency requirements.

Marzieh Peyravi, Nematollah Riazi, Francisco S. N. Lobo

New soliton solutions for thick branes in 4 + 1 dimensions are considered in this article. In particular, brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), $\varphi^{4}$ and $\varphi^{6}$ scalar fields are investigated; in some cases $Z_{2}$ symmetry is broken. Besides, these soliton solutions are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. In these models, the origin of the symmetry breaking resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacuua and these non-degenerate vacuua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. At last, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane, the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension are studied.

Yves Brihaye, Betti Hartmann

We show that minimal boson stars, i.e. boson stars made out of scalar fields without self-interaction, are always classically unstable in 5 space-time dimensions. This is true for the non-rotating as well as rotating case and in both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, respectively, and contrasts with the 4-dimensional case, where classically stable minimal boson stars exist. We also discuss the appearance of ergoregions for rotating boson stars. While rotating black holes typically possess an ergoregion, rotating compact objects without horizons such as boson stars have ergoregions only in a limited range of the parameter space. In this paper, we show for which values of the parameters these ergoregions appear and compare this with the case of standard Einstein gravity. We also point out that the interplay between Gauss-Bonnet gravity and rotation puts constraints on the behaviour of the space-time close to the rotation axis.

Martin Bucher, Wei-Tou Ni

This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's 1915 landmark paper "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This contribution, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book "One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity," endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.

T. S. Li, E. Balbinot, N. Mondrik,

We report the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l~285 deg and b~-60 deg and spans at least 30 deg in longitude and 10 deg in latitude. The Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9 sigma. The stellar population in the overdense region is similar in brightness and color to that of the nearby globular cluster NGC 1261, indicating that the heliocentric distance of EriPhe is about d~16 kpc. The extent of EriPhe in projection is therefore at least ~4 kpc by ~3 kpc. On the sky, this overdensity is located between NGC 1261 and a new stellar stream discovered by DES at a similar heliocentric distance, the so-called Phoenix Stream. Given their similar distance and proximity to each other, it is possible that these three structures may be kinematically associated. Alternatively, the EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the Virgo overdensity and the Hercules-Aquila cloud, which also lie at a similar Galactocentric distance. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~120 deg and may share a common origin. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of the stars in EriPhe are required to fully understand the nature of this overdensity.

E. Balbinot, B. Yanny, T. S. Li,

We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its residing constellation. Through the subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age $\tau=11.5\pm0.5$ Gyr and ${\rm [Fe/H]}<-1.6$ located 17.5$\pm$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$^{\circ}$.1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $\sim$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. We find evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 might have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. in preparation).

Obinna Umeh, Roy Maartens, Mario Santos

Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen brightness temperature promises to provide a three-dimensional view of the universe on very large scales. Nonlinear effects are typically thought to alter only the small-scale power, but we show how they may bias the extraction of cosmological information contained in the power spectrum on ultra-large scales. For linear perturbations to remain valid on large scales, we need to renormalize perturbations at higher order. In the case of intensity mapping, the second-order contribution to clustering from weak lensing dominates the nonlinear contribution at high redshift. Renormalization modifies the mean brightness temperature and therefore the evolution bias. It also introduces a term that mimics white noise. These effects may influence forecasting analysis on ultra-large scales.

Alkistis Pourtsidou, David Bacon, Robert Crittenden, R. Benton Metcalf

We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect HI clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the HI density $\Omega_{\rm HI}$, the HI bias $b_{\rm HI}$ and the galaxy-HI correlation coefficient $r_{\rm HI-g}$.

POLARBEAR Collaboration, Peter A. R. Ade, Kam Arnold,

We constrain anisotropic cosmic birefringence using four-point correlations of even-parity $E$-mode and odd-parity $B$-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background measurements made by the POLARBEAR experiment in its first season of observations. We find that the anisotropic cosmic birefringence signal from any parity violating processes is consistent with zero. The Faraday rotation from anisotropic cosmic birefringence can be compared with the equivalent quantity generated by primordial magnetic fields if they existed. The POLARBEAR non-detection translates into a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit of 93 nano-Gauss (nG) on the amplitude of an equivalent primordial magnetic field inclusive of systematic uncertainties. This four-point correlation constraint on Faraday rotation is about 15 times tighter than the upper limit of 1380 nG inferred from constraining the contribution of Faraday rotation to two-point correlations of $B$-modes measured by Planck in 2015. Metric perturbations sourced by primordial magnetic fields would also contribute to the $B$-mode power spectrum. Using the POLARBEAR measurements of the $B$-mode power spectrum (two-point correlation), we set a 95% C.L. upper limit of 3.9 nG on primordial magnetic fields assuming a flat prior on the field amplitude. This limit is comparable to what was found in the Planck 2015 two-point correlation analysis with both temperature and polarization. We perform a set of systematic error tests and find no evidence for contamination. This work marks the first time that anisotropic cosmic birefringence or primordial magnetic fields have been constrained from the ground at sub-degree scales.

D. J. Farrow, Shaun Cole, Peder Norberg,

We measure the projected 2-point correlation function of galaxies in the 180 deg$^2$ equatorial regions of the GAMA II survey, for four different redshift slices between z = 0.0 and z=0.5. To do this we further develop the Cole (2011) method of producing suitable random catalogues for the calculation of correlation functions. We find that more r-band luminous, more massive and redder galaxies are more clustered. We also find that red galaxies have stronger clustering on scales less than ~3 $h^{-1}$ Mpc. We compare to two different versions of the GALFORM galaxy formation model, Lacey et al (in prep.) and Gonzalez-Perez et al. (2014), and find that the models reproduce the trend of stronger clustering for more massive galaxies. However, the models under predict the clustering of blue galaxies, can incorrectly predict the correlation function on small scales and under predict the clustering in our sample of galaxies with ~3$L_r$ . We suggest possible avenues to explore to improve these cluster- ing predictions. The measurements presented in this paper can be used to test other galaxy formation models, and we make the measurements available online to facilitate this.

Jean Alexandre, Carl M. Bender, Peter Millington

An extension of QED is considered in which the Dirac fermion has both Hermitian and anti-Hermitian mass terms, as well as both vector and axial-vector couplings to the gauge field. Gauge invariance is restored when the Hermitian and anti-Hermitian masses are of equal magnitude, and the theory reduces to that of a single massless Weyl fermion. An analogous non-Hermitian Yukawa theory is considered and it is shown that this model can explain the smallness of the light-neutrino masses and provide an additional source of leptonic CP violation.

Jose Beltran Jimenez, Lavinia Heisenberg, Gonzalo J. Olmo, Christophe Ringeval

In the framework of Born-Infeld inspired gravity theories, which deviates from General Relativity (GR) in the high curvature regime, we discuss the viability of Cosmic Inflation without scalar fields. For energy densities higher than the new mass scale of the theory, a gravitating dust component is shown to generically induce an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Within such a simple scenario, inflation gracefully exits when the GR regime is recovered, but the Universe would remain matter dominated. In order to implement a reheating era after inflation, we then consider inflation to be driven by a mixture of unstable dust species decaying into radiation. Because the speed of sound gravitates within the Born-Infeld model under consideration, our scenario ends up being predictive on various open questions of the inflationary paradigm. The total number of e-folds of acceleration is given by the lifetime of the unstable dust components and is related to the duration of reheating. As a result, inflation does not last much longer than the number of e-folds of deceleration allowing a small spatial curvature and large scale deviations to isotropy to be observable today. Energy densities are self-regulated as inflation can only start for a total energy density less than a threshold value, again related to the species' lifetime. Above this threshold, the Universe may bounce thereby avoiding a singularity. Another distinctive feature is that the accelerated expansion is of the superinflationary kind, namely the first Hubble flow function is negative. We show however that the tensor modes are never excited and the tensor-to-scalar ratio is always vanishing, independently of the energy scale of inflation.

Jose Miguel No

Mono-$X$ signatures are a powerful collider probe of the nature of dark matter. We show that mono-Higgs and mono-$Z$ may be key signatures of pseudo-scalar portal interactions between dark matter and the SM. We demonstrate this using a simple renormalizable version of the portal, with a Two-Higgs-Doublet-Model as electroweak symmetry breaking sector. Mono-$Z$ and mono-Higgs signatures in this scenario are of resonant type, which constitutes a novel type of dark matter signature at LHC.

Kohta Murase, Dafne Guetta, Markus Ahlers

The latest IceCube data suggest that the all-flavor cosmic neutrino flux may be as large as 10^-7 GeV/cm^2/s/sr around 30 TeV. We show that, if astrophysical sources of the TeV-PeV neutrinos are transparent to gamma rays with respect to two-photon annihilation, a large fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background should originate from hadronic emission of such sources, independently of the production mechanism. Strong tensions with the diffuse gamma-ray data are unavoidable especially in hadronuclear scenarios. We further show that, if the IceCube neutrinos have a photohadronic origin, the sources are expected to be opaque to 1-100 GeV gamma rays. With these general multimessenger arguments, we find that the latest data may indicate a population of CR accelerators hidden in GeV-TeV gamma rays. Searches for x-ray and MeV gamma-ray counterparts are encouraged, and TeV-PeV neutrinos themselves will serve as special probes of dense source environments.

Rick S. Gupta, Zohar Komargodski, Gilad Perez, Lorenzo Ubaldi

We consider the recently proposed cosmological relaxation mechanism where the hierarchy problem is ameliorated, and the electroweak scale is dynamically selected by a slowly rolling axion field. We argue that, in its simplest form, the construction breaks a gauge symmetry that always exists for pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (in particular the axion). The small parameter in the relaxion model is therefore not technically natural as it breaks a gauge symmetry rather than global symmetries only. The consistency of the theory generically implies that the cutoff must lie around the electroweak scale, but not qualitatively higher. We discuss several ways to evade the above conclusion. Some of them may be sufficient to increase the cutoff to the few-TeV range (and therefore may be relevant for the little-hierarchy problem). To demonstrate the ideas in a concrete setting we consider a model with a familon, the Nambu-Goldstone boson of a spontaneously broken chiral flavor symmetry. The model has some interesting collider-physics aspects and contains a viable weakly interacting dark matter candidate.

Manda Banerji, R. G. McMahon, C. J. Willott,

We study the 850um emission in X-ray selected AGN in the 2 sq-deg COSMOS field using new data from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We find 19 850um bright X-ray AGN in a high-sensitivity region covering 0.89 sq-deg with flux densities of S850=4-10 mJy. The 19 AGN span the full range in redshift and hard X-ray luminosity covered by the sample - 0.7<z<3.5 and 43.2<log10(LX) <45. We report a highly significant stacked 850um detection of a hard X-ray flux-limited population of 699 z>1 X-ray AGN - S850=0.71+/-0.08mJy. We explore trends in the stacked 850um flux densities with redshift, finding no evolution in the average cold dust emission over the redshift range probed. For Type 1 AGN, there is no significant correlation between the stacked 850um flux and hard X-ray luminosity. However, in Type 2 AGN the stacked submm flux is a factor of 2 higher at high luminosities. When averaging over all X-ray luminosities, no significant differences are found in the stacked submm fluxes of Type 1 and Type 2 AGN as well as AGN separated on the basis of X-ray hardness ratios and optical-to-infrared colours. However, at log10(LX) >44.4, dependences in average submm flux on the optical-to-infrared colours become more pronounced. We argue that these high luminosity AGN represent a transition from a secular to a merger-driven evolutionary phase where the star formation rates and accretion luminosities are more tightly coupled. Stacked AGN 850um fluxes are compared to the stacked fluxes of a mass-matched sample of K-band selected non-AGN galaxies. We find that at 10.5<log10(M*/M0)<11.5, the non-AGN 850um fluxes are 1.5-2x higher than in Type 2 AGN of equivalent mass. We suggest these differences are due to the presence of massive dusty, red starburst galaxies in the K-band selected non-AGN sample, which are not present in optically selected catalogues covering a smaller area.

Baojiu Li, Jian-hua He, Liang Gao

We propose a new cosmological test of gravity, by using the observed mass fraction of X-ray emitting gas in massive galaxy clusters. The cluster gas fraction, believed to be a fair sample of the average baryon fraction in the Universe, is a well-understood observable, which has previously mainly been used to constrain background cosmology. In some modified gravity models, such as $f(R)$ gravity, gas temperature in a massive cluster is determined by the effective mass of that cluster, which can be larger than its true mass. On the other hand, X-ray luminosity is determined by the true gas density, which in both modified gravity and $\Lambda$CDM models depends mainly on $\Omega_{\rm b}/\Omega_{\rm m}$ and hence the true total cluster mass. As a result, the standard practice of combining gas temperatures and X-ray surface brightnesses of clusters to infer their gas fractions can, in modified gravity models, lead to a larger - in $f(R)$ gravity this can be $1/3$ larger - value of $\Omega_{\rm b}/\Omega_{\rm m}$ than that inferred from other observations such as the CMB. A quick calculation shows that the Hu-Sawicki $n=1$ $f(R)$ model with $

Jian-hua He, Baojiu Li

We investigate gas physics in $f(R)$ gravity using a suite of non-radiative hydrodynamical simulations. We find that the gas density and temperature profiles of effective halos in $f(R)$ gravity in the core region are similar to that of $\Lambda$CDM halos. Outside the core region, the profiles of effective halos in $f(R)$ gravity behave like $\Lambda$CDM halos with rescaled gas fractions. Basing on this result, we demonstrate that the scaling relations of accumulated gas quantities, such as the x-ray luminosity and the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect (Compton-y parameter), in $f(R)$ effective halos can be accurately predicted using the knowledge in the $\Lambda$CDM model. This leads to an efficient and reliable way to analyze the gas physics in $f(R)$ gravity simply based on the less-demanding pure cold dark matter simulations without running expensive hydrodynamical simulations. Our results thus have important theoretical and practical implications in constraining gravity using cluster surveys.

Santiago Casas, Luca Amendola, Marco Baldi,

We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range $z=0-1.6$ and wave modes below $k=10 \text{h/Mpc}$. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, $\beta^{2}$, with precision smaller than 4\% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1\%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

V. Jelić, A. G. de Bruyn, V. N. Pandey,

This study aims to characterize linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the 3C196 field, one of the primary fields of the LOFAR-Epoch of Reionization key science project. We have used the high band antennas (HBA) of LOFAR to image this region and Rotation Measure (RM) synthesis to unravel the distribution of polarized structures in Faraday depth. The brightness temperature of the detected Galactic emission is $5-15~{\rm K}$ in polarized intensity and covers the range from -3 to +8 ${\rm rad~m^{-2}}$ in Faraday depth. The most interesting morphological feature is a strikingly straight filament at a Faraday depth of $+0.5~{\rm rad~m^{-2}}$ running from north to south, right through the centre of the field and parallel to the Galactic plane. There is also an interesting system of linear depolarization canals conspicuous in an image showing the peaks of Faraday spectra. We used the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at 350 MHz to image the same region. For the first time, we see some common morphology in the RM cubes made at 150 and 350~{\rm MHz}. There is no indication of diffuse emission in total intensity in the interferometric data, in line with results at higher frequencies and previous LOFAR observations. Based on our results, we determined physical parameters of the ISM and proposed a simple model that may explain the observed distribution of the intervening magneto-ionic medium. The mean line-of-sight magnetic field component, $B_\parallel$, is determined to be $0.3\pm0.1~{\rm \mu G}$ and its spatial variation across the 3C196 field is $0.1~{\rm \mu G}$. The filamentary structure is probably an ionized filament in the ISM, located somewhere within the Local Bubble. This filamentary structure shows an excess in thermal electron density ($n_e B_\parallel>6.2~{\rm cm^{-3}\mu G}$) compared to its surroundings.

C. J. A. P. Martins, A. M. M. Pinho, R. F. C. Alves,

Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant $\alpha$, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, $\zeta$, to the electromagnetic sector) the $\alpha$ variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of $\zeta$ and the present dark energy equation of state $w_0$. Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the $\alpha$ dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the E\"otv\"os parameter $\eta$ that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints.

S. M. João, C. J. A. P. Martins, I. S. A. B. Mota, P. M. T. Vianez

Astrophysical tests of the stability of Nature's fundamental couplings are a key probe of the standard paradigms in fundamental physics and cosmology. In this report we discuss updated constraints on the stability of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$ and the proton-to-electron mass ratio $\mu=m_p/m_e$ within the Galaxy. We revisit and improve upon the analysis by Truppe {\it et al.} by allowing for the possibility of simultaneous variations of both couplings and also by combining them with the recent measurements by Levshakov {\it et al.} By considering representative unification scenarios we find no evidence for variations of $\alpha$ at the 0.4 ppm level, and of $\mu$ at the 0.6 ppm level; if one uses the Levshakov bound on $\mu$ as a prior, the$\alpha$ bound is improved to 0.1 ppm. We also highlight how these measurements can constrain (and discriminate among) several fundamental physics paradigms.

Macarena Lagos, Johannes Noller

We study a previously largely unexplored branch of homogeneous and isotropic background solutions in ghost-free massive bigravity with consistent double matter coupling. For a certain family of parameters we find `self-inflated' FLRW cosmologies, i.e. solutions with an accelerated early-time period during the radiation-dominated era. In addition, these solutions also display an accelerated late-time period closely mimicking GR with a cosmological constant. Interestingly, within this family, the particular case of $\beta_1=\beta_3=0$ gives bouncing cosmologies, where there is an infinite contracting past, a non-zero minimum value of the scale factor at the bounce, and an infinite expanding future.

Daverio David, Mark Hindmarsh, Neil Bevis

latfield2 is a C++ library designed to simplify writing parallel codes for solving partial differen- tial equations, developed for application to classical field theories in particle physics and cosmology. It is a significant rewrite of the latfield framework, moving from a slab domain decomposition to a rod decomposition, where the last two dimension of the lattice are scattered into a two dimensional process grid. Parallelism is implemented using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, and hidden in the basic objects of grid-based simulations: Lattice, Site and Field. It comes with an integrated parallel fast Fourier transform, and I/O server class permitting computation to continue during the writing of large files to disk. latfield2 has been used for production runs on tens of thousands of processor elements, and is expected to be scalable to hundreds of thousands.

Moritz F. Linkmann, Arjun Berera, Mairi E. McKay, Julia Jäger

Spectral transfer processes in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are investigated analytically by decomposition of the velocity and magnetic fields in Fourier space into helical modes. Steady solutions of the dynamical system which governs the evolution of the helical modes are determined, and a stability analysis of these solutions is carried out. The interpretation of the analysis is that unstable solutions lead to energy transfer between the interacting modes while stable solutions do not. From this, a dependence of possible interscale energy and helicity transfers on the helicities of the interacting modes is derived. As expected from the inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in 3D MHD turbulence, mode interactions with like helicities lead to transfer of energy and magnetic helicity to smaller wavenumbers. However, some interactions of modes with unlike helicities also contribute to an inverse energy transfer. As such, an inverse energy cascade for nonhelical magnetic fields is shown to be possible. Furthermore, it is found that high values of the cross-helicity may have an asymmetric effect on forward and reverse transfer of energy, where forward transfer is more quenched in regions of high cross-helicity than reverse transfer. This conforms with recent observations of solar wind turbulence. For specific helical interactions the relation to dynamo action is established.

Sebastian Bahamonde, Christian G. Boehmer, Matthew Wright

We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel geometries. It is well known that modified gravity models based on the torsion scalar are not invariant under local Lorentz transformations while modifications based on the Ricci scalar are. This motivates the study of a model depending on the torsion scalar and the divergence of the torsion vector. We derive the teleparallel equivalent of $f(R)$ gravity as a particular subset of these models and also show that this is the unique theory in this class that is invariant under local Lorentz transformation. Furthermore one can show that $f(T)$ gravity is the unique theory admitting second order field equations.

Damien P. George, Sander Mooij, Marieke Postma

We compute the one-loop renormalization group equations for Standard Model Higgs inflation. The calculation is done in the Einstein frame, using a covariant formalism for the multi-field system. All counterterms, and thus the betafunctions, can be extracted from the radiative corrections to the two-point functions; the calculation of higher n-point functions then serves as a consistency check of the approach. We find that the theory is renormalizable in the effective field theory sense in the small, mid and large field regime. In the large field regime our results differ slightly from those found in the literature, due to a different treatment of the Goldstone bosons.

Salvatore Capozziello, Tiberiu Harko, Tomi S. Koivisto,

Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

Irina Arefeva, Andrey Bagrov, Petter Saterskog, Koenraad Schalm

We apply the $AdS/CFT$ holography to the simplest possible eternal time machine solution in $AdS_3$ based on two conical defects moving around their center of mass along a circular orbit. Closed timelike curves in this space-time extend all the way to the boundary of $AdS_3$, violating causality of the boundary field theory. By use of the geodesic approximation we address the "grandfather paradox" in the dual $1+1$ dimensional field theory and calculate the two-point retarded Green function. It has a non-trivial analytical structure both at negative and positive times, providing us with an intuition on how an interacting quantum field could behave once causality is broken. In contrast with the previous considerations our calculations reveal the possibility of a consistent and controllable evolution of a quantum system without any need to impose additional consistency constraints.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim,

The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. A novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been applied to select the most luminous cold submm sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545GHz above 500mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z>2, assuming a dust temperature of 35K and a spectral index of 1.5. First follow-up observations obtained from optical to submm have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies, which are amongst the brightest submm lensed objects (with flux density at 545GHz ranging from 350mJy up to 1Jy) at redshift 2 to 4. However, the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with z>2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue; by extending the population of the virialized massive galaxy clusters to a population of sources at z>1.5, the PHZ may contain the progenitors of today's clusters. Hence the PHZ opens a new window on the study of the early ages of structure formation, and the understanding of the intensively star-forming phase at high-z.

Nicolas Tessore, Hans A. Winther, R. Benton Metcalf,

A number of alternatives to general relativity exhibit gravitational screening in the non-linear regime of structure formation. We describe a set of algorithms that can produce weak lensing maps of large scale structure in such theories and can be used to generate mock surveys for cosmological analysis. By analysing a few basic statistics we indicate how these alternatives can be distinguished from general relativity with future weak lensing surveys.

Matthew C. Johnson, Carroll L. Wainwright, Anthony Aguirre, Hiranya V. Peiris

This is the third paper in a series establishing a quantitative relation between inflationary scalar field potential landscapes and the relic perturbations left by the collision between bubbles produced during eternal inflation. We introduce a new method for computing cosmological observables from numerical relativity simulations of bubble collisions. This method tiles comoving hypersurfaces with locally-perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker coordinate patches. The method extends previous work, which was limited to the spacetime region just inside the future light cone of the collision, and allows us to explore the full bubble-collision spacetime. We validate our new methods against previous work, and present a full set of predictions for the comoving curvature perturbation and local negative spatial curvature produced by identical and non-identical bubble collisions, in single scalar field models of eternal inflation. In both collision types, there is a non-zero contribution to the spatial curvature and cosmic microwave background quadrupole. Some collisions between non-identical bubbles excite wall modes, giving extra structure to the predicted temperature anisotropies. We comment on the implications of our results for future observational searches. For non-identical bubble collisions, we also find that the surfaces of constant field can readjust in the presence of a collision to produce spatially infinite sections that become nearly homogeneous deep into the region affected by the collision. Contrary to previous assumptions, this is true even in the bubble into which the domain wall is accelerating.

The DES Collaboration, A. Drlica-Wagner, K. Bechtol,

We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two additional lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of incomplete or non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found using three independent automated search techniques, and are identified as statistically significant overdensities of individually resolved stars consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (Mv > -4.7 mag) and span a broad range of physical sizes (17 pc < $r_{1/2}$ < 181 pc) and heliocentric distances (25 kpc < D < 214 kpc). All of the new systems have central surface brightnesses (\mu > 27.5 mag arcsec$^2$) consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies, and would have had a low probability of detection if observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A large fraction of satellite candidates are found in the southern half of the DES footprint in proximity to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that the DES data alone exclude (p < 0.001) a spatially isotropic distribution of Milky Way satellites, and that this distribution can be well, although not uniquely, explained by a model in which several of the observed DES satellites are associated with the Magellanic system. Including the current sample, our model predicts that ~100 ultra-faint galaxies with physical properties comparable to the DES satellites might exist over the full sky and that 20-30% of these would be spatially associated with the Magellanic Clouds.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, M. Arnaud,

The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70GHz and 100GHz channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70/100/143GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8deg-15arcmin are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement between 70 and 100GHz power spectra averaged over 70<l<390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same l range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100/143/217GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematic errors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described...(abridged)

Francisco S. N. Lobo, Tiberiu Harko, José P. Mimoso, Diego Pavón

An interesting cosmological history was proposed by Prigogine {\it et al.} who considered the Universe as a thermodynamically open system. This scenario is characterized by a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the pressureless matter fluid. Here, we show that the gravitationally induced particle production may arise from a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling. By considering the equivalent scalar-tensor theory, the cosmological implications of the model are discussed. As all known natural systems tend to a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, and assuming the universe is not different in this respect, we also discuss the conditions to attain the equilibrium state.

Tiberiu Harko, Francisco S. N. Lobo, José P. Mimoso, Diego Pavón

We consider the possibility of a gravitationally induced particle production through the mechanism of a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling. An interesting feature of this gravitational theory is that the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is nonzero. As a first step in our study we reformulate the model in terms of an equivalent scalar-tensor theory, with two arbitrary potentials. By using the formalism of open thermodynamic systems, we interpret the energy balance equations in this gravitational theory from a thermodynamic point of view, as describing irreversible matter creation processes. The particle number creation rates, the creation pressure, and the entropy production rates are explicitly obtained as functions of the scalar field and its potentials, as well as of the matter Lagrangian. The temperature evolution laws of the newly created particles are also obtained. The cosmological implications of the model are briefly investigated, and it is shown that the late-time cosmic acceleration may be due to particle creation processes. Furthermore, it is also shown that due to the curvature--matter coupling, during the cosmological evolution a large amount of comoving entropy is also produced.

Samantha A. Usman, Marcel S. Kehl, Alexander H. Nitz,

The second generation of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin taking data in September 2015. Sensitive and computationally-efficient data analysis methods will be required to maximize what we learn from their observations. We describe improvements made to the offline analysis pipeline searching for gravitational waves from stellar-mass compact binary coalescences, and assess how these improvements affect search sensitivity. Starting with the two-stage ihope pipeline used in S5, S6 and VSR1-3 and using two weeks of S6/VSR3 data as test periods, we first demonstrate a pipeline with a simpler workflow. This single-stage pipeline performs matched filtering and coincidence testing only once. This simplification allows us to reach much lower false-alarm rates for loud candidate events. We then describe an optimized chi-squared test which minimizes computational cost. Next, we compare methods of generating template banks, demonstrating that a fixed bank may be used for extended stretches of time. Fixing the bank reduces the cost and complexity, compared to the previous method of regenerating a template bank every 2048 s of analyzed data. Creating a fixed bank shared by all detectors also allows us to apply a more stringent coincidence test, whose performance we quantify. With these improvements, we find a 10% increase in sensitive volume with a negligible change in computational cost.

Yong Chuan Zhan, Chong Sheng Li, Ze Long Liu, Shi Ang Li

We present a detailed study of the production and decay of the excited quark at the QCD next-to-leading order (NLO) level at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), using the narrow width approximation and helicity amplitudes method. We find that the QCD NLO corrections can tighten the constraints on the model parameters and reduce the scale dependencies of the total cross sections. We discuss the signals of the excited quark production with decay mode $q^{\ast}\rightarrow q\gamma$ and $q^{\ast}\rightarrow qg$, and present several important kinematic distributions. Moreover, we give the upper limits of the excited quark excluded mass range and the allowed parameter space for the coupling constants and the excited quark mass.

Donough Regan, Mark Hindmarsh

We calculate the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum from cosmic strings, for the first time including the contributions from the last scattering surface, using a well-established Gaussian model for the string energy-momentum correlation functions, and a simplified model for the cosmic fluid. We check our approximation for the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution against the bispectrum obtained from the full sky map of the cosmic string ISW signal used by the Planck team, obtaining good agreement. We validate our model for the last scattering surface contribution by comparing the predicted temperature power spectrum with that obtained from a full Boltzmann code treatment applied to the Unconnected Segment Model of a string network. We find that including the last scattering contribution has only a small impact on the upper limit on the string tension resulting from the bispectrum at Planck resolutions, and argue that the bispectrum is unlikely to be competitive with the power spectrum at any resolution.

Simon P. Driver, Angus H. Wright, Stephen K. Andrews,

We present the GAMA Panchromatic Data Release (PDR) constituting over 230deg$^2$ of imaging with photometry in 21 bands extending from the far-UV to the far-IR. These data complement our spectroscopic campaign of over 300k galaxies, and are compiled from observations with a variety of facilities including: GALEX, SDSS, VISTA, WISE, and Herschel, with the GAMA regions currently being surveyed by VST and scheduled for observations by ASKAP. These data are processed to a common astrometric solution, from which photometry is derived for 221,373 galaxies with r<19.8 mag. Online tools are provided to access and download data cutouts, or the full mosaics of the GAMA regions in each band. We focus, in particular, on the reduction and analysis of the VISTA VIKING data, and compare to earlier datasets (i.e., 2MASS and UKIDSS) before combining the data and examining its integrity. Having derived the 21-band photometric catalogue we proceed to fit the data using the energy balance code MAGPHYS. These measurements are then used to obtain the first fully empirical measurement of the 0.1-500$\mu$m energy output of the Universe. Exploring the Cosmic Spectral Energy Distribution (CSED) across three time-intervals (0.3-1.1Gyr, 1.1-1.8~Gyr and 1.8---2.4~Gyr), we find that the Universe is currently generating $(1.5 \pm 0.3) \times 10^{35}$ h$_{70}$ W Mpc$^{-3}$, down from $(2.5 \pm 0.2) \times 10^{35}$ h$_{70}$ W Mpc$^{-3}$ 2.3~Gyr ago. More importantly, we identify significant and smooth evolution in the integrated photon escape fraction at all wavelengths, with the UV escape fraction increasing from 27(18)% at z=0.18 in NUV(FUV) to 34(23)% at z=0.06. The GAMA PDR will allow for detailed studies of the energy production and outputs of individual systems, sub-populations, and representative galaxy samples at $z<0.5$. The GAMA PDR can be found at: http://gama-psi.icrar.org/

Jacques M. Wagstaff, Robi Banerjee

We improve previous calculations of the CMB spectral distortions due to the decay of primordial magnetic fields. We focus our studies on causally generated magnetic fields at the electroweak and QCD phase transitions. We also consider the decay of helical magnetic fields. We show that the decay of non-helical magnetic fields generated at either the electroweak or QCD scale produce $\mu$ and $y$-type distortions below $10^{-8}$ which are probably not detectable by a future PIXIE-like experiment. We show that magnetic fields generated at the electroweak scale must have a helicity fraction $f_*>10^{-4}$ in order to produce detectable $\mu$-type distortions. Hence a positive detection coming from the decay of magnetic fields would rule out non-helical primordial magnetic fields and provide a lower bound on the magnetic helicity.

Arjun Berera, Roman V. Buniy, Thomas W. Kephart,

We suggest a structure for the vacuum comprised of a network of tightly knotted/linked flux tubes formed in a QCD-like cosmological phase transition and show that such a network can drive cosmological inflation. As the network can be topologically stable only in three space dimensions, this scenario provides a dynamical explanation for the existence of exactly three large spatial dimensions in our Universe.

Adriano Agnello, Tommaso Treu, Fernanda Ostrovski,

We present spectroscopic confirmation of two new lensed quasars via data obtained at the 6.5m Magellan/Baade Telescope. The lens candidates have been selected from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and WISE based on their multi-band photometry and extended morphology in DES images. Images of DES J0115-5244 show two blue point sources at either side of a red galaxy. Our long-slit data confirm that both point sources are images of the same quasar at $z_{s}=1.64.$ The Einstein Radius estimated from the DES images is $0.51$". DES J2200+0110 is in the area of overlap between DES and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Two blue components are visible in the DES and SDSS images. The SDSS fiber spectrum shows a quasar component at $z_{s}=2.38$ and absorption compatible with Mg II and Fe II at $z_{l}=0.799$, which we tentatively associate with the foreground lens galaxy. The long-slit Magellan spectra show that the blue components are resolved images of the same quasar. The Einstein Radius is $0.68$" corresponding to an enclosed mass of $1.6\times10^{11}\,M_{\odot}.$ Three other candidates were observed and rejected, two being low-redshift pairs of starburst galaxies, and one being a quasar behind a blue star. These first confirmation results provide an important empirical validation of the data-mining and model-based selection that is being applied to the entire DES dataset.

Matteo Martinelli, Erminia Calabrese, C. J. A. P. Martins

We use a combination of simulated cosmological probes and astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$, as expected from the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), to constrain the class of string-inspired runaway dilaton models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We consider three different scenarios for the dark sector couplings in the model and discuss the observational differences between them. We improve previously existing analyses investigating in detail the degeneracies between the parameters ruling the coupling of the dilaton field to the other components of the universe, and studying how the constraints on these parameters change for different fiducial cosmologies. We find that if the couplings are small (e.g., $\alpha_b=\alpha_V\sim0$) these degeneracies strongly affect the constraining power of future data, while if they are sufficiently large (e.g., $\alpha_b\gtrsim10^{-5}-\alpha_V\gtrsim0.05$, as in agreement with current constraints) the degeneracies can be partially broken. We show that E-ELT will be able to probe some of this additional parameter space.

Dipak Munshi, Geraint Pratten, Patrick Valageas,

We study Modified Gravity (MG) theories by modelling the redshifted matter power spectrum in a spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) basis. We use a fully non-linear description of the real-space matter power-spectrum and include the lowest-order redshift-space correction (Kaiser effect), taking into account some additional non-linear contributions. Ignoring relativistic corrections, which are not expected to play an important role for a shallow survey, we analyse two different modified gravity scenarios, namely the generalised Dilaton scalar-tensor theories and the $f({R})$ models in the large curvature regime. We compute the 3D power spectrum ${\cal C}^s_{\ell}(k_1,k_2)$ for various such MG theories with and without redshift space distortions, assuming precise knowledge of background cosmological parameters. Using an all-sky spectroscopic survey with Gaussian selection function $\varphi(r)\propto \exp(-{r^2 / r^2_0})$, $r_0 = 150 \, h^{-1} \, {\textrm{Mpc}}$, and number density of galaxies $\bar {\textrm{N}} =10^{-4}\;{\textrm{Mpc}}^{-3}$, we use a $\chi^2$ analysis, and find that the lower-order $(\ell \leq 25)$ multipoles of ${\cal C}^s_\ell(k,k')$ (with radial modes restricted to $k < 0.2 \, h \,{\textrm{Mpc}}^{-1}$) can constraint the parameter $f_{R_0}$ at a level of $2\times 10^{-5} (3\times 10^{-5})$ with $3 \sigma$ confidence for $n=1(2)$. Combining constraints from higher $\ell > 25$ modes can further reduce the error bars and thus in principle make cosmological gravity constraints competitive with solar system tests. However this will require an accurate modelling of non-linear redshift space distortions. Using a tomographic $\beta(a)$-$m(a)$ parameterization we also derive constraints on specific parameters describing the Dilaton models of modified gravity.

Charlotte R. Christensen, Romeel Davé, Fabio Governato,

We examine the scalings of galactic outflows with halo mass across a suite of twenty high-resolution cosmological zoom galaxy simulations covering halo masses from 10^9.5 - 10^12 M_sun. These simulations self-consistently generate outflows from the available supernova energy in a manner that successfully reproduces key galaxy observables including the stellar mass-halo mass, Tully-Fisher, and mass-metallicity relations. We quantify the importance of ejective feedback to setting the stellar mass relative to the efficiency of gas accretion and star formation. Ejective feedback is increasingly important as galaxy mass decreases; we find an effective mass loading factor that scales as v_circ^(-2.2), with an amplitude and shape that is invariant with redshift. These scalings are consistent with analytic models for energy-driven wind, based solely on the halo potential. Recycling is common: about half the outflow mass across all galaxy masses is later re-accreted. The recycling timescale is typically about 1 Gyr, virtually independent of halo mass. Recycled material is re-accreted farther out in the disk and with typically about 2-3 times more angular momentum. These results elucidate and quantify how the baryon cycle plausibly regulates star formation and alters the angular momentum distribution of disk material across the halo mass range where most of cosmic star formation occurs.

Brien C. Nolan, Elizabeth Winstanley

We investigate the stability of four-dimensional dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of ${\mathfrak {su}}(2)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter space. We prove that, in a neighbourhood of the embedded trivial (Schwarzschild-)anti-de Sitter solution, there exist non-trivial dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the field equations which are stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of the metric and non-Abelian gauge field.

Zachary Kenton, David J. Mulryne

We calculate the squeezed limit of the bispectrum produced by inflation with multiple light fields. To achieve this we allow for different horizon exit times for each mode and calculate the intrinsic field-space three-point function in the squeezed limit using soft-limit techniques. We then use the $\delta N$ formalism from the time the last mode exits the horizon to calculate the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. We apply our results to calculate the spectral index of the halo bias, $n_{\delta b}$, an important observational probe of the squeezed limit of the primordial bispectrum and compare our results with previous formulae. We give an example of a curvaton model with $n_{\delta b} \sim {\cal O}(n_s-1)$ for which we find a 20% correction to observable parameters for squeezings relevant to future experiments. For completeness, we also calculate the squeezed limit of three-point correlation functions involving gravitons for multiple field models.

E. Suchyta, E. M. Huff, J. Aleksić,

Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for their sensitivity to depth and seeing variations. Using the synthetic galaxies as randoms in the standard Landy-Szalay correlation function estimator suppresses the effects of variable survey selection by at least two orders of magnitude. With this correction, our measured angular clustering is found to be in excellent agreement with that of a matched sample drawn from much deeper, higher-resolution space-based COSMOS imaging; over angular scales of $0.004^{\circ} < \theta < 0.2^{\circ}$, we find a best-fit scaling amplitude between the DES and COSMOS measurements of $1.00 \pm 0.09$. We expect this methodology to be broadly useful for extending the statistical reach of measurements in a wide variety of coming imaging surveys.

Fa Peng Huang, Chong Sheng Li

We study the electroweak baryogenesis in the framework of the effective field theory. Our study shows that by introducing a light singlet scalar particle and a dimension-5 operator, it can provide the strong first order phase transition and the source of the CP-violation during the phase transition, and then produce abundant particle phenomenology at zero temperature. We also show the constraints on the new physics scale from the observed baryon-to-photon ratio, the low-energy experiments, and the LHC data.

Vincent Vennin, Kazuya Koyama, David Wands

We investigate whether the predictions of single-field models of inflation are robust under the introduction of additional scalar degrees of freedom, and whether these extra fields change the potentials for which the data show the strongest preference. We study the situation where an extra light scalar field contributes both to the total curvature perturbations and to the reheating kinematic properties. Ten reheating scenarios are identified, and all necessary formulas allowing a systematic computation of the predictions for this class of models are derived. They are implemented in the public library ASPIC, which contains more than 75 single-field potentials. This paves the way for a forthcoming full Bayesian analysis of the problem. A few representative examples are displayed and discussed.

A. Georgakakis, J. Aird, J. Buchner,

We combine deep X-ray survey data from the Chandra observatory and the wide-area/shallow XMM-XXL field to estimate the AGN X-ray luminosity function in the redshift range z=3-5. The sample consists of nearly 340 sources with either photometric (212) or spectroscopic (128) redshift in the above range. The combination of deep and shallow survey fields provides a luminosity baseline of three orders of magnitude, Lx(2-10keV)~1e43-1e46erg/s at z>3. We follow a Bayesian approach to determine the binned AGN space density and explore their evolution in a model-independent way. Our methodology accounts for Poisson errors in the determination of X-ray fluxes and uncertainties in photometric redshift estimates. We demonstrate that the latter is essential for unbiased measurement of space densities. We find that the AGN X-ray luminosity function evolves strongly between the redshift intervals z=3-4 and z=4-5. There is also suggestive evidence that the amplitude of this evolution is luminosity dependent. The space density of AGN with Lx<1e45erg/s drops by a factor of 5 between the redshift intervals above, while the evolution of brighter AGN appears to be milder. Comparison of our X-ray luminosity function with that of UV/optical selected QSOs at similar redshifts shows broad agreement at bright luminosities, Lx>1e45erg/s. The faint-end slope of UV/optical luminosity functions however, is steeper than for X-ray selected AGN. This implies that the type-I AGN fraction increases with decreasing luminosity at z>3, opposite to trends established at lower redshift. We also assess the significance of AGN in keeping the hydrogen ionised at high redshift. Our X-ray luminosity function yields ionising photon rate densities that are insufficient to keep the Universe ionised at redshift z>4. A source of uncertainty in this calculation is the escape fraction of UV photons for X-ray selected AGN.

Clare Burrage, Edmund J. Copeland

We review the tantalising prospect that the first evidence for the dark energy driving the observed acceleration of the Universe on giga-parsec scales may be found through metre scale laboratory based atom interferometry experiments. To do that, we first introduce the idea that scalar fields could be responsible for dark energy and show that in order to be compatible with fifth force constraints these fields must have a screening mechanism which hides their effects from us within the solar system. Particular emphasis is placed on one such screening mechanism known as the chameleon effect where the field's mass becomes dependent on the environment. The way the field behaves in the presence of a spherical source is determined and we then go on to show how in the presence of the kind of high vacuum associated with atom interferometry experiments, and when the test particle is an atom, it is possible to use the associated interference pattern to place constraints on the acceleration due to the fifth force of the chameleon field - this has already been used to rule out large regions of the chameleon parameter space and maybe one day will be able to detect the force due to the dark energy field in the laboratory.

Pedro Carrilho, Karim A. Malik

We derive the evolution equation for the second order curvature perturbation using standard techniques of cosmological perturbation theory. We do this for different definitions of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation, arising from different splits of the spatial metric, and compare the expressions. The results are valid at all scales and include all contributions from scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, as well as anisotropic stress, with all our results written purely in terms of gauge invariant quantities. Taking the large-scale approximation, we find that a conserved quantity exists only if, in addition to the non-adiabatic pressure, the transverse traceless part of the anisotropic stress tensor is also negligible. We also find that the version of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation which is exactly conserved is the one defined with the determinant of the spatial part of the inverse metric.

Ogan Özsoy, Gizem Sengor, Kuver Sinha, Scott Watson

In this note we propose a model independent framework for inflationary (p)reheating. Our approach is analogous to the Effective Field Theory of Inflation, however here the inflaton oscillations provide an additional source of (discrete) symmetry breaking. Using the Goldstone field that non-linearly realizes time diffeormorphism invariance we construct a model independent action for both the inflaton and reheating sectors. Utilizing the hierarchy of scales present during the reheating process we are able to recover known results in the literature in a simpler fashion, including the presence of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum. We also construct a class of models where the shift symmetry of the inflaton is preserved during reheating, which helps alleviate past criticisms of (p)reheating in models of Natural Inflation. Extensions of our framework suggest the possibility of analytically investigating non-linear effects (such as rescattering and back-reaction) during thermalization without resorting to lattice methods. By construction, the EFT relates the strength of many of these interactions to other operators in the theory, including those responsible for the efficiency of (p)reheating. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations and challenges for our approach.

Ian Harrison, Michael L. Brown

This document was submitted as supporting material to an Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). This ECP requests gridded visibilities as an extra imaging data product from the SKA, in order to enable bespoke analysis techniques to measure source morphologies to the accuracy necessary for precision cosmology with radio weak lensing. We also discuss the properties of an SKA weak lensing data set and potential overlaps with other cosmology science goals.

C. Bonnett, M. A. Troxel, W. Hartley,

We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods -- ANNZ2, BPZ calibrated against BCC-Ufig simulations, SkyNet, and TPZ -- are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evaluated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift $0.72\pm0.01$ over the range $0.3<z<1.3$, we construct three tomographic bins with means of $z=\{0.45, 0.67, 1.00\}$. These bins each have systematic uncertainties $\delta z \lesssim 0.05$ in the mean of the fiducial SkyNet photo-z $n(z)$. We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of $\sigma_8$ of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on $\sigma_8$ for the DES SV shear catalog. We further study the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, $\Sigma_{\mathrm{crit}}$, finding levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of $n(z)$ of width $0.05$ for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

B. Leistedt, H. V. Peiris, F. Elsner,

Spatially-varying depth and characteristics of observing conditions, such as seeing, airmass, or sky background, are major sources of systematic uncertainties in modern galaxy survey analyses, in particular in deep multi-epoch surveys. We present a framework to extract and project these sources of systematics onto the sky, and apply it to the Dark Energy Survey (DES) to map the observing conditions of the Science Verification (SV) data. The resulting distributions and maps of sources of systematics are used in several analyses of DES SV to perform detailed null tests with the data, and also to incorporate systematics in survey simulations. We illustrate the complementarity of these two approaches by comparing the SV data with the BCC-UFig, a synthetic sky catalogue generated by forward-modelling of the DES SV images. We analyse the BCC-UFig simulation to construct galaxy samples mimicking those used in SV galaxy clustering studies. We show that the spatially-varying survey depth imprinted in the observed galaxy densities and the redshift distributions of the SV data are successfully reproduced by the simulation and well-captured by the maps of observing conditions. The combined use of the maps, the SV data and the BCC-UFig simulation allows us to quantify the impact of spatial systematics on $N(z)$, the redshift distributions inferred using photometric redshifts. We conclude that spatial systematics in the SV data are mainly due to seeing fluctuations and are under control in current clustering and weak lensing analyses. The framework presented here is relevant to all multi-epoch surveys, and will be essential for exploiting future surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will require detailed null-tests and realistic end-to-end image simulations to correctly interpret the deep, high-cadence observations of the sky.

T. D. Kitching, A. N. Taylor, M. Cropper,

In this paper we investigate the impact that realistic scale-dependence systematic effects may have on cosmic shear tomography. We model spatially varying residual ellipticity and size variations in weak lensing measurements and propagate these through to predicted changes in the uncertainty and bias of cosmological parameters. We show that the survey strategy - whether it is regular or randomised - is an important factor in determining the impact of a systematic effect: a purely randomised survey strategy produces the smallest biases, at the expense of larger parameter uncertainties, and a very regularised survey strategy produces large biases, but unaffected uncertainties. However, by removing, or modelling, the affected scales (l-modes) in the regular cases the biases are reduced to negligible levels. We find that the integral of the systematic power spectrum is not a good metric for dark energy performance, and we advocate that systematic effects should be modelled accurately in real space, where they enter the measurement process, and their effect subsequently propagated into power spectrum contributions.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity ($

Cormac Breen, Matthew Hewitt, Adrian C. Ottewill, Elizabeth Winstanley

We compute the renormalized expectation value of the square of a massless, conformally coupled, quantum scalar field on the brane of a higher-dimensional black hole. Working in the AADD brane-world scenario, the extra dimensions are flat and we assume that the compactification radius is large compared with the size of the black hole. The four-dimensional on-brane metric corresponds to a slice through a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole geometry and depends on the number of bulk space-time dimensions. The quantum scalar field is in a thermal state at the Hawking temperature. An exact, closed-form expression is derived for the renormalized expectation value of the square of the quantum scalar field on the event horizon of the black hole. Outside the event horizon, this renormalized expectation value is computed numerically. The answer depends on the number of bulk space-time dimensions, with a magnitude which increases rapidly as the number of bulk space-time dimensions increases.

Djuna Croon, Veronica Sanz, Ewan R. M. Tarrant

The flatness of the inflaton potential and lightness of the Higgs could have the common origin of the breaking of a global symmetry. This scenario provides a unified framework of Goldstone Inflation and Composite Higgs, where the inflaton and the Higgs both have a pseudo--Goldstone boson nature. The inflaton reheats the Universe via decays to the Higgs and subsequent secondary production of other SM particles via the top and massive vector bosons. We find that inflationary predictions and perturbative reheating conditions are consistent with CMB data for sub--Planckian values of the fields, as well as opening up the possibility of inflation at the TeV scale. We explore this exciting possibility, leading to an interplay between collider data and cosmological constraints.

José Fonseca, Stefano Camera, Mário G. Santos, Roy Maartens

Next-generation cosmological surveys will probe ever larger volumes of the Universe, including the largest scales, near and beyond the horizon. On these scales, the galaxy power spectrum carries signatures of local primordial non-Gaussianity (PNG) and horizon-scale general relativistic (GR) effects. However, cosmic variance limits the detection of horizon-scale effects. Combining different surveys via the multi-tracer method allows us to reduce the effect down cosmic variance. This method benefits from large bias differences between two tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution, which suggests a multi-wavelength combination of large volume surveys that are planned on a similar timescale. We show that the combination of two contemporaneous surveys, a large neutral hydrogen intensity mapping survey in SKA Phase1 and a Euclid-like photometric survey, will provide unprecedented constraints on PNG as well as detection of the GR effects. We forecast that the error on local PNG will break through the cosmic variance limit on cosmic microwave background surveys and achieve $\sigma(f_{NL})\simeq1.4-0.5$, depending on assumed priors, bias, and sky coverage. GR effects are more robust to changes in the assumed fiducial model, and we forecast that they can be detected with a signal-to-noise of about $14$.

Sante Carloni, Tomi Koivisto, Francisco S. N. Lobo

The so called $f(X)$ hybrid metric-Palatini gravity presents a unique viable generalisation of the $f(R)$ theories within the metric-affine formalism. Here the cosmology of the $f(X)$ theories is studied using the dynamical system approach. The method consists of formulating the propagation equation in terms of suitable (expansion-normalised) variables as an autonomous system. The fixed points of the system then represent exact cosmological solutions described by power-law or de Sitter expansion. The formalism is applied to two classes of $f(X)$ models, revealing both standard cosmological fixed points and new accelerating solutions that can be attractors in the phase space. In addition, the fixed point with vanishing expansion rate are considered with special care in order to characterise the stability of Einstein static spaces and bouncing solutions.

David Alonso, Pedro G. Ferreira

Multiple tracers of the cosmic density field, with different bias, number and luminosity evolution, can be used to measure the large-scale properties of the Universe. We show how an optimal combination of tracers can be used to detect general-relativistic effects in the observed density of sources. We forecast for the detectability of these effects, as well as measurements of primordial non-Gaussianity and large-scale lensing magnification with current and upcoming large-scale structure experiments. In particular we quantify the significance of these detections in the short term with experiments such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), and in the long term with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We review the main observational challenges that must be overcome to carry out these measurements.

Lara B. Anderson, Fabio Apruzzi, Xin Gao,

We present a generalization of the complete intersection in products of projective space (CICY) construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds. CICY three-folds and four-folds have been studied extensively in the physics literature. Their utility stems from the fact that they can be simply described in terms of a `configuration matrix', a matrix of integers from which many of the details of the geometries can be easily extracted. The generalization we present is to allow negative integers in the configuration matrices which were previously taken to have positive semi-definite entries. This broadening of the complete intersection construction leads to a larger class of Calabi-Yau manifolds than that considered in previous work, which nevertheless enjoys much of the same degree of calculational control. These new Calabi-Yau manifolds are complete intersections in (not necessarily Fano) ambient spaces with an effective anticanonical class. We find examples with topology distinct from any that has appeared in the literature to date. The new manifolds thus obtained have many interesting features. For example, they can have smaller Hodge numbers than ordinary CICYs and lead to many examples with elliptic and K3-fibration structures relevant to F-theory and string dualities.

Nilanjan Banik, Adam J. Christopherson

We introduce a new mechanism for generating magnetic fields in the recombination era. This Harrison-like mechanism utilizes vorticity in baryons that is sourced through the Bose-Einstein condensate of axions via gravitational interactions. The magnetic fields generated are on the galactic scales $\sim 10\,{\rm kpc}$ and have a magnitude of the order of $B\sim10^{-23}\,{\rm G}$ today. The field has a greater magnitude than those generated from other mechanisms relying on second order perturbation theory, and is sufficient to provide a seed for battery mechanisms.

Planck Collaboration, N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud,

This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, such as the effective number of neutrino species. For this first detailed analysis of Planck polarization, we concentrate at high $\ell$ on E modes. At low $\ell$ we use temperature at all Planck frequencies along with a subset of polarization. These data take advantage of Planck's wide frequency range to improve the separation of CMB and foregrounds. Within the baseline cosmology this requires a reionization optical depth $\tau=0.078\pm0.019$, significantly lower than without high-frequency data for explicit dust monitoring. At high $\ell$ we detect residual errors in E, typically at the {\mu}K$^2$ level; we thus recommend temperature alone as the high-$\ell$ baseline. Nevertheless, Planck high-$\ell$ polarization spectra are already good enough to allow a separate high-accuracy determination of the {\Lambda}CDM parameters, consistent with those established from temperature alone.

G. Ponti, B. De Marco, M. R. Morris,

We present a study of the X-ray flaring activity of Sgr A* during all the 150 XMM-Newton and Chandra observations pointed at the Milky Way center over the last 15 years. This includes the latest XMM-Newton and Chandra campaigns devoted to monitoring the closest approach of the very red Br-Gamma emitting object called G2. The entire dataset analysed extends from September 1999 through November 2014. We employed a Bayesian block analysis to investigate any possible variations in the characteristics (frequency, energetics, peak intensity, duration) of the flaring events that Sgr A* has exhibited since their discovery in 2001. We observe that the total bright-or-very bright flare luminosity of Sgr A* increased between 2013-2014 by a factor of 2-3 (~3.5 sigma significance). We also observe an increase (~99.9% significance) from 0.27+-0.04 to 2.5+-1.0 day^-1 of the bright-or-very bright flaring rate of Sgr A*, starting in late summer 2014, which happens to be about six months after G2's peri-center passage. This might indicate that clustering is a general property of bright flares and that it is associated with a stationary noise process producing flares not uniformly distributed in time (similar to what is observed in other quiescent black holes). If so, the variation in flaring properties would be revealed only now because of the increased monitoring frequency. Alternatively, this may be the first sign of an excess accretion activity induced by the close passage of G2. More observations are necessary to distinguish between these two hypotheses.

Supakchai Ponglertsakul, Sam Dolan, Elizabeth Winstanley

We investigate possible end-points of the superradiant instability for a charged black hole with a reflecting mirror. By considering a fully coupled system of gravity and a charged scalar field, hairy black hole solutions are obtained. The linear stability of these black hole solutions is studied.

Sam R Dolan, Supakchai Ponglertsakul, Elizabeth Winstanley

Can a black hole that suffers a superradiant instability evolve towards a 'hairy' configuration which is stable? We address this question in the context of Einstein-charged scalar field theory. First, we describe a family of static black hole solutions which possess charged scalar-field hair confined within a mirror-like boundary. Next, we derive a set of equations which govern the linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of these hairy solutions. We present numerical evidence which suggests that, unlike the vacuum solutions, the (single-node) hairy solutions are stable under linear perturbations. Thus, it is plausible that stable hairy black holes represent the end-point of the superradiant instability of electrically-charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in a cavity; we outline ways to explore this hypothesis.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim,

The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions of the Planck compact source catalogues. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub-catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these catalogues covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels. The improved data-processing of the full-mission maps and their reduced noise levels allow us to increase the number of objects in the catalogue, improving its completeness for the target 80 % reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and ERCSC catalogues.

Sownak Bose, Wojciech A. Hellwing, Carlos S. Frenk,

The recent detection of a 3.5 keV X-ray line from the centres of galaxies and clusters by Bulbul et al. (2014a) and Boyarsky et al. (2014a) has been interpreted as emission from the decay of 7 keV sterile neutrinos which could make up the (warm) dark matter (WDM). As part of the COpernicus COmplexio (COCO) programme, we investigate the properties of dark matter haloes formed in a high-resolution cosmological $N$-body simulation from initial conditions similar to those expected in a universe in which the dark matter consists of 7 keV sterile neutrinos. This simulation and its cold dark matter (CDM) counterpart have $\sim13.4$bn particles, each of mass $\sim 10^5\, h^{-1} M_\odot$, providing detailed information about halo structure and evolution down to dwarf galaxy mass scales. Non-linear structure formation on small scales ($M_{200}\, \leq\, 2 \times 10^9\,h^{-1}\,M_\odot$) begins slightly later in COCO-Warm than in COCO-Cold. The halo mass function at the present day in the WDM model begins to drop below its CDM counterpart at a mass $\sim 2 \times 10^{9}\,h^{-1}\,M_\odot$ and declines very rapidly towards lower masses so that there are five times fewer haloes of mass $M_{200}= 10^{8}\,h^{-1}\,M_\odot$ in COCO-Warm than in COCO-Cold. Halo concentrations on dwarf galaxy scales are correspondingly smaller in COCO-Warm, and we provide a simple functional form that describes its evolution with redshift. The shapes of haloes are similar in the two cases, but the smallest haloes in COCO-Warm rotate slightly more slowly than their CDM counterparts.

Yong-Seon Song, Atsushi Taruya, Eric Linder,

We analyse the clustering of cosmic large scale structure using a consistent modified gravity perturbation theory, accounting for anisotropic effects along and transverse to the line of sight. The growth factor has a particular scale dependence in f(R) gravity and we fit for the shape parameter f_{R0} simultaneously with the distance and the large scale (general relativity) limit of the growth function. Using more than 690,000 galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey Data Release 11, we find no evidence for extra scale dependence, with the 95\% confidence upper limit

Daniel Abercrombie, Nural Akchurin, Ece Akilli,

This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.

Hiu Yan Ip, Jeremy Sakstein, Fabian Schmidt

Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to $\mathcal{M} \gtrsim 100$ eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology.

D. Gotz, C. Adami, S. Basa,

We present the Micro-channel X-ray Telescope (MXT), a new narrow-field (about 1{\deg}) telescope that will be flying on the Sino-French SVOM mission dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst science, scheduled for launch in 2021. MXT is based on square micro pore optics (MPOs), coupled with a low noise CCD. The optics are based on a "Lobster Eye" design, while the CCD is a focal plane detector similar to the type developed for the seven eROSITA telescopes. MXT is a compact and light (<35 kg) telescope with a 1 m focal length, and it will provide an effective area of about 45 cmsq on axis at 1 keV. The MXT PSF is expected to be better than 4.2 arc min (FWHM) ensuring a localization accuracy of the afterglows of the SVOM GRBs to better than 1 arc min (90\% c.l. with no systematics) provided MXT data are collected within 5 minutes after the trigger. The MXT sensitivity will be adequate to detect the afterglows for almost all the SVOM GRBs as well as to perform observations of non-GRB astrophysical objects. These performances are fully adapted to the SVOM science goals, and prove that small and light telescopes can be used for future small X-ray missions.

Sašo Grozdanov, Andrew Lucas, Subir Sachdev, Koenraad Schalm

We study electrical transport in a strongly coupled strange metal in two spatial dimensions at finite temperature and charge density, holographically dual to Einstein-Maxwell theory in an asymptotically $\mathrm{AdS}_4$ spacetime, with arbitrary spatial inhomogeneity, up to mild assumptions including emergent isotropy. In condensed matter, these are candidate models for exotic strange metals without long-lived quasiparticles. We prove that the electrical conductivity is bounded from below by a universal minimal conductance: the quantum critical conductivity of a clean, charge-neutral plasma. Beyond non-perturbatively justifying mean-field approximations to disorder, our work demonstrates the practicality of new hydrodynamic insight into holographic transport.

Nandinii Barbosa-Cendejas, Josue De-Santiago, Gabriel German,

We study tachyon inflation within the large-$N$ formalism, which takes a prescription for the small Hubble flow slow--roll parameter $\epsilon_1$ as a function of the large number of $e$-folds $N$. This leads to a classification of models through their behaviour at large $N$. In addition to the perturbative $N$ class, we introduce the polynomial and exponential classes for the $\epsilon_1$ parameter. With this formalism we reconstruct a large number of potentials used previously in the literature for Tachyon Inflation. We also obtain new families of potentials form the polynomial class. We characterize the realizations of Tachyon Inflation by computing the usual cosmological observables up to second order in the Hubble flow slow--roll parameters. This allows us to look at observable differences between tachyon and canonical single field inflation. The analysis of observables in light of the Planck 2015 data shows the viability of some of these models, mostly for certain realization of the polynomial and exponential classes.

Frederico Arroja, Nicola Bartolo, Purnendu Karmakar, Sabino Matarrese

We show that very general scalar-tensor theories of gravity (including, e.g., Horndeski models) are generically invariant under disformal transformations. However there is a special subset, when the transformation is not invertible, that yields new equations of motion which are a generalization of the so-called "mimetic" dark matter theory recently introduced by Chamsedinne and Mukhanov. These new equations of motion can also be derived from an action containing an additional Lagrange multiplier field. The general mimetic scalar-tensor theory has the same number of derivatives in the equations of motion as the original scalar-tensor theory. As an application we show that the simplest mimetic scalar-tensor model is able to mimic the cosmological background of a flat FLRW model with an irrotational barotropic perfect fluid with any constant equation of state.

Nelson A. Lima, Pedro G. Ferreira

We introduce a designer approach for extended Brans-Dicke gravity that allows us to obtain the evolution of the scalar field by fixing the Hubble parameter to that of a $w$CDM model. We obtain analytical approximations for $\phi$ as a function of the scale factor and use these to build expressions for the effective Newton's constant at the background and at the linear level and the slip between the perturbed Newtonian potentials. By doing so, we are able to explore their dependence on the fundamental parameters of the theory.

Sebastian Bahamonde, Christian G. Boehmer, Francisco S. N. Lobo, Diego Saez-Gomez

High-precision observational data have confirmed with startling evidence that the Universe is currently undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. This phase, one of the most important and challenging current problems in cosmology, represents a new imbalance in the governing gravitational equations. Historically, physics has addressed such imbalances by either identifying sources that were previously unaccounted for, or by altering the gravitational theory. Several candidates, responsible for this expansion, have been proposed in the literature, in particular, dark energy models and modified gravity models, amongst others. Outstanding questions are related to the nature of this so-called "dark energy" that is driving this acceleration, and whether it is due to the vacuum energy or a dynamical field. On the other hand, the late-time cosmic acceleration may be due to modifications of General Relativity. In this work we explore a generalised modified gravity theory, namely $f(R,\phi,X)$ gravity, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar, $\phi$ is a scalar field, and $X$ is a kinetic term. This theory contains a wide range of dark energy and modified gravity models. We considered specific models and applications to the late-time cosmic acceleration.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

We present measurements of $\Omega$ and $\phi$ production at mid-rapidity from Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Motivated by the coalescence formation mechanism for these strange hadrons, we study the ratios of $N(\Omega^{-}+\Omega^{+})/(2N(\phi))$. These ratios as a function of transverse momentum ($p_T$) fall on a consistent trend at high collision energies, but start to show deviations in peripheral collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV, and in central collisions at 11.5 GeV in the intermediate $p_T$ region of 2.4-3.6 GeV/c. We further evaluate empirically the strange quark $p_T$ distributions at hadronization by studying the $\Omega/\phi$ ratios scaled by the number of constituent quarks. The NCQ-scaled $\Omega/\phi$ ratios show a suppression of strange quark production in central collisions at 11.5 GeV compared to $\sqrt{s_{NN}} >= 19.6$ GeV. The shapes of the presumably thermal strange quark distributions in 0-60% most central collisions at 7.7 GeV show significant deviations from those in 0-10% most central collisions at higher energies. These features suggest that there is likely a change of the underlying strange quark dynamics in the transition from quark-matter to hadronic matter at collision energies below 19.6 GeV.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim,

We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold Spot" is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.

Hans A. Winther, Fabian Schmidt, Alexandre Barreira,

Self-consistent ${\it N}$-body simulations of modified gravity models are a key ingredient to obtain rigorous constraints on deviations from General Relativity using large-scale structure observations. This paper provides the first detailed comparison of the results of different ${\it N}$-body codes for the $f(R)$, DGP, and Symmetron models, starting from the same initial conditions. We find that the fractional deviation of the matter power spectrum from $\Lambda$CDM agrees to better than $1\%$ up to $k \sim 5-10~h/{\rm Mpc}$ between the different codes. These codes are thus able to meet the stringent accuracy requirements of upcoming observational surveys. All codes are also in good agreement in their results for the velocity divergence power spectrum, halo abundances and halo profiles. We also test the quasi-static limit, which is employed in most modified gravity ${\it N}$-body codes, for the Symmetron model for which the most significant non-static effects among the models considered are expected. We conclude that this limit is a very good approximation for all of the observables considered here.

P. P. Avelino, L. Sousa, Francisco S. N. Lobo

In the letter by Stadnik and Flambaum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 151301 (2014)] it is claimed that topological defects passing through pulsars could be responsible for the observed pulsar glitches. Here, we show that, independently of the detailed network dynamics and defect dimensionality, defect networks cannot be at the origin of the pulsar glitch phenomenon.

Markus Ahlers, Philipp Mertsch

The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

Stephen Eales, Andrew Fullard, Matthew Allen,

Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly project, we show that, for galaxy masses above approximately 1.0e8 solar masses, 51% of the stellar mass-density in the local Universe is in early-type galaxies (ETGs: Sersic n > 2.5) while 89% of the rate of production of stellar mass-density is occurring in late-type galaxies (LTGs: Sersic n < 2.5). From this zero-redshift benchmark, we have used a calorimetric technique to quantify the importance of the morphological transformation of galaxies over the history of the Universe. The extragalactic background radiation contains all the energy generated by nuclear fusion in stars since the Big Bang. By resolving this background radiation into individual galaxies using the deepest far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and using measurements of the Sersic index of these galaxies derived from the HST images, we estimate that approximately 83% of the stellar mass-density formed over the history of the Universe occurred in LTGs. The difference between this and the fraction of the stellar mass-density that is in LTGs today implies there must have been a major transformation of LTGs into ETGs after the formation of most of the stars.

Elisabetta Majerotto, Domenico Sapone, Bjoern Malte Schaefer

Cosmological fluids are commonly assumed to be distributed in a spatially homogeneous way, while their internal properties are described by a perfect fluid. As such, they influence the Hubble-expansion through their respective densities and equation of state parameters. The subject of this paper is an investigation of the fluid-mechanical properties of a dark energy fluid, which is characterised by its sound speed and its viscosity apart from its equation of state. In particular, we compute the predicted spectra for the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect for our generalised fluid, and compare them with the corresponding predictions for weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, which had been computed in previous work. We perform statistical forecasts and show that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal obtained by cross correlating Euclid galaxies with Planck temperatures, when joined to galaxy clustering and weak lensing observations, yields a percent sensitivity on the dark energy sound speed and viscosity. We prove that the iSW effect provides strong degeneracy breaking for low sound speeds and large differences between the sound speed and viscosity parameters.

Matti Herranen, Tommi Markkanen, Sami Nurmi, Arttu Rajantie

We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the Standard Model only through the non-minimal gravitational coupling $\xi$ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalisation of the Standard Model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for $\xi\gtrsim 1$, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe.

Philippe Brax, Clare Burrage, Christoph Englert

Disformally coupled, light scalar fields arise in many of the theories of dark energy and modified gravity that attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. They have proved difficult to constrain with precision tests of gravity because they do not give rise to fifth forces around static non-relativistic sources. However, because the scalar field couples derivatively to standard model matter, measurements at high energy particle colliders offer an effective way to constrain and potentially detect a disformally coupled scalar field. Here we derive new constraints on the strength of the disformal coupling from LHC run 1 data and provide a forecast for the improvement of these constraints from run 2. We additionally comment on the running of disformal and standard model couplings in this scenario under the renormalisation group flow.

Tanmay Vachaspati, Levon Pogosian, Daniele Steer

This article, written for Scolarpedia, provides a brief introduction into the subject of cosmic strings, together with a review of their main properties, cosmological evolution and observational signatures.

Dhiraj Kumar Hazra, Arman Shafieloo

We report the first test of isotropy of the Universe in the matter dominated epoch using the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest data from the high redshift quasars ($z>2$) from SDSS-III BOSS-DR9 datasets. Using some specified data cuts, we obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) of the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest transmitted flux and use the statistical moments of the PDF to address the isotropy of the Universe. In an isotropic Universe one would expect the transmitted flux to have consistent statistical characteristics in different parts of the sky. We trisect the total survey area of 3275 ${\rm deg}^2$ along the galactic latitude and using quadrant convention. We also make three subdivisions in the data for three different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR). Finally we obtain and compare the statistical moments in the mean redshifts of 2.3, 2.6 and 2.9. We find, that the moments from all patches agree at all redshifts and at all SNRs, within 3$\sigma$ uncertainties. Since Lyman-$\alpha$ transmitted flux directly maps the neutral hydrogen distribution in the inter galactic medium (IGM), our results indicate, within the limited survey area and sensitivity of the data, the distribution of the neutral hydrogen in the Universe is consistent with isotropic distribution. We should mention that we report few deviations from isotropy in the data with low statistical significance. Increase in survey area and larger amount of data are needed to make any strong conclusion about these deviations.

M. C. Ferreira, C. J. A. P. Martins

In a recent publication [Ferreira {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 083011] we tested the consistency of current astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$ and the proton-to-electron mass ratio $\mu=m_p/m_e$ (mostly obtained in the optical/ultraviolet) with combined measurements of $\alpha$, $\mu$ and the proton gyromagnetic ratio $g_p$ (mostly in the radio band). Given the significant observational progress made in the past year, we now revisit and update this analysis. We find that apparent inconsistencies, at about the two-sigma level, persist and are in some cases enhanced, especially for matter era measurements (corresponding to redshifts $z>1$). Although hidden systematics may be the more plausible explanation, we briefly highlight the importance of clarifying this issue, which is within the reach of state-of-the art observational facilities such as ALMA and ESPRESSO.

Kanghoon Lee, Charles Strickland-Constable, Daniel Waldram

We discuss the possible realisation in string/M theory of the recently discovered family of four-dimensional maximal $SO(8)$ gauged supergravities, and of an analogous family of seven-dimensional half-maximal $SO(4)$ gauged supergravities. We first prove a no-go theorem that neither class of gaugings can be realised via a compactification that is locally described by ten- or eleven-dimensional supergravity. In the language of Double Field Theory and its M theory analogue, this implies that the section condition must be violated. Introducing the minimal number of additional coordinates possible, we then show that the standard $S^3$ and $S^7$ compactifications of ten- and eleven-dimensional supergravity admit a new class of section-violating generalised frames with a generalised Lie derivative algebra that reproduces the embedding tensor of the $SO(4)$ and $SO(8)$ gaugings respectively. The physical meaning, if any, of these constructions is unclear. They highlight a number of the issues that arise when attempting to apply the formalism of Double Field Theory to non-toroidal backgrounds. Using a naive brane charge quantisation to determine the periodicities of the additional coordinates restricts the $SO(4)$ gaugings to an infinite discrete set and excludes all the $SO(8)$ gaugings other than the standard one.

Johannes Noller, Vishagan Sivanesan, Mikael von Strauss

We investigate a large class of infinitesimal, but fully nonlinear in the field, transformations of the Galileon and search for extended symmetries. The transformations involve powers of the coordinates $x$ and the field $\pi$ up to any finite order $N$. Up to quadratic order the structure of these symmetry transformations is the unique generalisation of both the infinitesimal version of the standard Galileon shift symmetry as well as a recently discovered infinitesimal extension of this symmetry. The only higher-order extensions of this symmetry we recover are (`Galileon dual' versions of) symmetries of the standard kinetic term.

Mohammad Reza Mehdizadeh, Mahdi Kord Zangeneh, Francisco S. N. Lobo

In this work, we explore asymptotically flat charged thin-shell wormholes of third order Lovelock gravity in higher dimensions, taking into account the cut-and-paste technique. Using the generalized junction conditions, we determine the energy-momentum tensor of these solutions on the shell, and explore the issue of the energy conditions and the amount of normal matter that supports these thin-shell wormholes. Our analysis shows that for negative second order and positive third-order Lovelock coefficients, there are thin-shell wormhole solutions that respect the weak energy condition. In this case, the amount of normal matter increases as the third-order Lovelock coefficient decreases. We also find novel solutions which possess specific regions where the energy conditions are satisfied for the case of a positive second order and negative third-order Lovelock coefficients. Finally, a linear stability analysis in higher dimensions around the static solutions is carried out. Considering a specific cold equation of state, we find a wide range of stability regions.

Jalal Abdallah, Henrique Araujo, Alexandre Arbey,

This document outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. For s-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediation is discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementation are presented.

Alkistis Pourtsidou, David Bacon, Robert Crittenden

The cross-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and HI intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to $\simeq 8\%$ for a sky coverage $f_{\rm sky}=0.5$ and assuming a $\sigma(\Omega_{\rm DE})=0.03$ prior for the dark energy density parameter.

Gert Aarts, Felipe Attanasio, Benjamin Jäger,

The sign problem of QCD prevents standard lattice simulations to determine the phase diagram of strong interactions with a finite chemical potential directly. Complex Langevin simulations provide an alternative method to sample path integrals with complex weights. We report on our ongoing project to determine the phase diagram of QCD in the limit of heavy quarks (HDQCD) using Complex Langevin simulations.

Carl M. Bender, Daniel W. Hook, Nick E. Mavromatos, Sarben Sarkar

The conventional interpretation of the one-loop effective potentials of the Higgs field in the Standard Model and the gravitino condensate in dynamically broken supergravity is that these theories are unstable at large field values. A PT-symmetric reinterpretation of these models at a quantum-mechanical level eliminates these instabilities and suggests that these instabilities may also be tamed at the quantum-field-theory level.

Stephen M. Feeney, Franz Elsner, Matthew C. Johnson, Hiranya V. Peiris

We forecast the ability of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization datasets to constrain theories of eternal inflation using cosmic bubble collisions. Using the Fisher matrix formalism, we determine both the overall detectability of bubble collisions and the constraints achievable on the fundamental parameters describing the underlying theory. The CMB signatures considered are based on state-of-the-art numerical relativistic simulations of the bubble collision spacetime, evolved using the full temperature and polarization transfer functions. Comparing a theoretical cosmic-variance-limited experiment to the WMAP and Planck satellites, we find that there is no improvement to be gained from future temperature data, that adding polarization improves detectability by approximately 30%, and that cosmic-variance-limited polarization data offer only marginal improvements over Planck. The fundamental parameter constraints achievable depend on the precise values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio and energy density in (negative) spatial curvature. For a tensor-to-scalar ratio of $0.1$ and spatial curvature at the level of $10^{-4}$, using cosmic-variance-limited data it is possible to measure the width of the potential barrier separating the inflating false vacuum from the true vacuum down to $M_{\rm Pl}/500$, and the initial proper distance between colliding bubbles to a factor $\pi/2$ of the false vacuum horizon size (at three sigma). We conclude that very near-future data will have the final word on bubble collisions in the CMB.

Nick E. Mavromatos

I discuss dynamical generation of neutrino masses in unconventional scenarios where the background space-time geometry plays a crucial role. I discuss two types of backgrounds: (i) Lorentz Violating and (ii) Geometries with Torsion. In the former case, the violation of Lorentz symmetry, at a scale M, may be viewed as a catalyst for mass generation and induced flavour oscillations among neutrino species, which survive the limit of M taken to infinity, leading to a hierarchy among neutrino masses. In the latter case, the (totally antisymmetric components of the) torsion degrees of freedom correspond to a pseudoscalar axion field in four space-time dimensions. This field is assumed to be mixed, through non-diagonal kinetic terms, with ordinary axion fields that may exist in the theory for other reasons and couple to neutrinos with chirality changing Yukawa couplings. The torsion-ordinary-axion-field mixing is responsible, through higher-loop anomalous graphs, for the dynamical generation of Majorana masses. The latter scenarios can also be realised in some (compactified) string theory models, where the (totally antisymmetric) torsion is played by the field strength of the spin-one antisymmetric tensor (Kalb-Ramond) field, which exists in the gravitational string multiplet.

Jeppe Trøst Nielsen, Alberto Guffanti, Subir Sarkar

The "standard" model of cosmology is founded on the basis that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating at present --- as was inferred originally from the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. There exists now a much bigger database of supernovae so we can perform rigorous statistical tests to check whether these "standardisable candles" indeed indicate cosmic acceleration. Taking account of the empirical procedure by which corrections are made to their absolute magnitudes to allow for the varying shape of the light curve and extinction by dust, we find, rather surprisingly, that the data are still quite consistent with a constant rate of expansion.

Nicola Bartolo, Daniele Bertacca, Marco Bruni,

In General Relativity, the constraint equation relating metric and density perturbations is inherently nonlinear, leading to an effective non-Gaussianity in the density field on large scales -- even if the primordial metric perturbation is Gaussian. This imprints a relativistic signature in large-scale structure which is potentially observable, for example via a scale-dependent galaxy bias. The effect has been derived and then confirmed by independent calculations, using second-order perturbation theory. Recently, the physical reality of this relativistic effect has been disputed. The counter-argument is based on the claim that a very long wavelength curvature perturbation can be removed by a coordinate transformation. We argue that while this is true locally, the large-scale curvature cannot be removed by local coordinate transformations. The transformation itself contains the long-wavelength modes and thus includes the correlation. We show how the separate universe approach can be used to understand this correlation, confirming the results of perturbation theory.

Tessa Baker, Philip Bull

Extremely large surveys with future experiments like Euclid and the SKA will soon allow us to access perturbation modes close to the Hubble scale, with wavenumbers $k \sim \mathcal{H}$. If a modified gravity theory is responsible for cosmic acceleration, the Hubble scale is a natural regime for deviations from General Relativity (GR) to become manifest. The majority of studies to date have concentrated on the consequences of alternative gravity theories for the subhorizon, quasi-static regime, however. In this paper we investigate how modifications to the gravitational field equations affect perturbations around the Hubble scale. We choose functional forms to represent the generic scale-dependent behaviour of gravity theories that modify GR at long wavelengths, and study the resulting deviations of ultra large-scale relativistic observables from their GR behaviour. We find that these are small unless modifications to the field equations are drastic. The angular dependence and redshift evolution of the deviations is highly parameterisation- and survey-dependent, however, and so they are possibly a rich source of modified gravity phenomenology if they can be measured.

Micah Brush, Levon Pogosian, Tanmay Vachaspati

Interactions of different types of topological defects can play an important role in the aftermath of a phase transition. We study interactions of fundamental magnetic monopoles and stable domain walls in a Grand Unified theory in which $SU(5) \times Z_2$ symmetry is spontaneously broken to $SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)/Z_6$. We find that there are only two distinct outcomes depending on the relative orientation of the monopole and the wall in internal space. In one case, the monopole passes through the wall, while in the other it unwinds on hitting the wall.

Ciaran A. J. O'Hare, Anne M. Green, Julien Billard,

The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. As the sensitivity of these experiments improves, the question of how to best distinguish a dark matter signal from neutrinos will become increasingly important. A proposed method of overcoming this so-called 'neutrino floor' is to utilize the directional signature that both neutrino and dark matter induced recoils possess. We show that directional experiments can indeed probe WIMP-nucleon cross-sections below the neutrino floor with little loss in sensitivity due to the neutrino background. In particular we find at low WIMP masses (around 6 GeV) the discovery limits for directional detectors penetrate below the non-directional limit by several orders of magnitude. For high WIMP masses (around 100 GeV), the non-directional limit is overcome by a factor of a few. Furthermore we show that even for directional detectors which can only measure 1- or 2-dimensional projections of the 3-dimensional recoil track, the discovery potential is only reduced by a factor of 3 at most. We also demonstrate that while the experimental limitations of directional detectors, such as sense recognition and finite angular resolution, have a detrimental effect on the discovery limits, it is still possible to overcome the ultimate neutrino background faced by non-directional detectors.

Justin Alsing, Alan Heavens, Andrew H. Jaffe,

We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models \emph{a posteriori} without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear $E$-mode, $B$-mode and $EB$-cross power spectra from a simulated galaxy shear catalogue with a number of important features; galaxies distributed on the sky and in redshift with photometric redshift uncertainties, realistic random ellipticity noise for every galaxy and a complicated survey mask. The obtained posterior distributions for the tomographic power spectrum coefficients recover the underlying simulated power spectra for both $E$- and $B$-modes, where the latter are recovered at a level of $1$-$2$ orders of magnitude below the ellipticity noise level.

Oliver Buchmueller, Sarah A. Malik, Christopher McCabe, Bjoern Penning

The mono-jet search, looking for events involving missing transverse energy (MET) plus one or two jets, is the most prominent collider dark matter search. We show that multi-jet searches, which look for MET plus two or more jets, are significantly more sensitive than the mono-jet search for pseudoscalar- and scalar-mediated interactions. We demonstrate this in the context of a simplified model with a pseudoscalar interaction that explains the excess in GeV energy gamma rays observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We show that multi-jet searches already constrain a pseudoscalar interpretation of the excess in much of the parameter space where the mass of the mediator (mA) is more than twice the dark matter mass (mDM). With the forthcoming run of the LHC at higher energies, the remaining regions of the parameter space where mA>2mDM will be fully explored. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of complementing the mono-jet final state with multi-jet final states to maximise the sensitivity of the search for the production of dark matter at colliders.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$, for charged hadrons from U+U collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV. Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the amount of energy deposited by spectators in the STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of $v_2\{2\}$ on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U+U collisions. An initial-state model with gluon saturation describes the slope of $v_2\{2\}$ as a function of multiplicity in central collisions better than one based on Glauber with a two-component multiplicity model.

David Alonso, Philip Bull, Pedro G. Ferreira,

Future surveys of large-scale structure will be able to measure perturbations on the scale of the cosmological horizon, and so could potentially probe a number of novel relativistic effects that are negligibly small on sub-horizon scales. These effects leave distinctive signatures in the power spectra of clustering observables and, if measurable, would open a new window on relativistic cosmology. We quantify the size and detectability of the effects for a range of future large-scale structure surveys: spectroscopic and photometric galaxy redshift surveys, intensity mapping surveys of neutral hydrogen, and continuum surveys of radio galaxies. Our forecasts show that next-generation experiments, reaching out to redshifts z ~ 4, will not be able to detect previously-undetected general-relativistic effects from the single-tracer power spectra alone, although the contribution of weak lensing magnification on large scales should be clearly detectable. We also perform a rigorous joint forecast for the detection of primordial non-Gaussianity through the excess power it produces in the clustering of biased tracers on large scales, finding that uncertainties of sigma(f_NL) ~ 1-2 should be achievable. We discuss the systematic effects that must be mitigated to achieve this level of sensitivity, and some alternative approaches that should help to improve the constraints.

Bradley J. Kavanagh

The framework of non-relativistic effective field theory (NREFT) aims to generalise the standard analysis of direct detection experiments in terms of spin-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) interactions. We show that a number of NREFT operators lead to distinctive new directional signatures, such as prominent ring-like features in the directional recoil rate, even for relatively low mass WIMPs. We discuss these signatures and how they could affect the interpretation of future results from directional detectors. We demonstrate that considering a range of possible operators introduces a factor of 2 uncertainty in the number of events required to confirm the median recoil direction of the signal. Furthermore, using directional detection, it is possible to distinguish the more general NREFT interactions from the standard SI/SD interactions at the $2\sigma$ level with $\mathcal{O}(100-500)$ events. In particular, we demonstrate that for certain NREFT operators, directional sensitivity provides the only method of distinguishing them from these standard operators, highlighting the importance of directional detectors in probing the particle physics of dark matter.

Ali Mozaffari, Nima Sharifi-Mood, Joel Koplik, Charles Maldarelli

We study the diffusiophoretic self-propulsion of a colloidal catalytic particle due to a surface chemical reaction in a vicinity of a solid wall. Diffusiophoresis is a chemico-mechanical transduction mechanism in which a concentration gradient of an interacting solute produces an unbalanced force on a colloidal particle and drives it along the gradient. We consider a spherical particle with an axisymmetric reacting cap covering the polar angle range $0\le \theta\le \theta_{cap}$ in the presence of a repulsive solute, near an infinite planar wall, and solve the coupled solute concentration and Stokes equations, using a mixture of numerical and analytic arguments. The resulting particle trajectory is determined by $\theta_{cap}$ and the initial orientation of the symmetry axis with respect to the plane. At normal incidence the particle initially moves away from or towards the wall, depending on whether the cap faces towards or away, respectively, but even in the latter case the particle never reaches the wall due to hydrodynamic lubrication resistance. For other initial orientations, when $\theta_{cap}\le 115^{\circ}$ the particle either moves away immediately or else rotates along its trajectory so as to cause the active side to face the wall and the particle to rebound. For higher coverage we find trajectories where the particle skims along the wall at constant separation or else comes to rest. We provide a phase diagram giving the nature of the trajectory (repulsion, rebound, skimming or stationary) as a function of $\theta_{cap}$ and the initial orientation.

Catherine A. Watkinson, Jonathan R. Pritchard

This paper considers the impact of Lyman-alpha coupling and X-ray heating on the 21-cm brightness-temperature one-point statistics (as predicted by semi-numerical simulations). The X-ray production efficiency is varied over four orders of magnitude and the hardness of the X-ray spectrum is varied from that predicted for high-mass X-ray binaries, to the softer spectrum expected from the hot inter-stellar medium. We find peaks in the redshift evolution of both the variance and skewness associated with the efficiency of X-ray production. The amplitude of the variance is also sensitive to the hardness of the X-ray SED. We find that the relative timing of the coupling and heating phases can be inferred from the redshift extent of a plateau that connects a peak in the variance's evolution associated with Lyman-alpha coupling to the heating peak. Importantly, we find that late X-ray heating would seriously hamper our ability to constrain reionization with the variance. Late X-ray heating also qualitatively alters the evolution of the skewness, providing a clean way to constrain such models. If foregrounds can be removed, we find that LOFAR, MWA and PAPER could constrain reionization and late X-ray heating models with the variance. We find that HERA and SKA (phase 1) will be able to constrain both reionization and heating by measuring the variance using foreground-avoidance techniques. If foregrounds can be removed they will also be able to constrain the nature of Lyman-alpha coupling.

M. P. Viero, L. Moncelsi, R. F. Quadri,

We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies and their faint companions at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly-available UltraVISTA catalog, and maps at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m from the \emph{Herschel} Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that uncatalogued sources may bias stacked flux densities --- particularly if the resolution of the image is poor --- and intentionally smooth the images before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in K_S ~ 23.4) sources that are physically associated, or correlated, with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 +- 0.78, 5.77 +- 0.43, and 2.32 +- 0.19$\, \rm nW m^{-2} sr^{-1}$ at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m at 300 arcsec FWHM. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 +- 0.23, 1.07 +- 0.31, and 0.97 +- 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/Msun) > 8.5 can account for the most of the measured total intensities, and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z > 4.

Alvise Raccanelli, Francesco Montanari, Daniele Bertacca,

We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called "relativistic effects," and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring the matter content of the Universe and primordial non-Gaussianity parameters. Therefore, we argue that radial correlations and integrated relativistic terms need to be taken into account when forecasting the constraining power of future large-scale number counts of galaxy surveys.

Andrew M. Taylor, Markus Ahlers, Dan Hooper

Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that the data strongly prefers models in which the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard ($\alpha\simeq 1$) in order to fit the spectrum observed at Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically. In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration ($\alpha\simeq 2$), are favored in models with negative source evolution. With this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.

Alexandre Barreira, Marius Cautun, Baojiu Li,

We study lensing by voids in Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity cosmologies, which are examples of theories of gravity that modify the lensing potential. We find voids in the dark matter and halo density fields of N-body simulations and compute their lensing signal analytically from the void density profiles, which we show are well fit by a simple analytical formula. In the Cubic Galileon model, the modifications to gravity inside voids are not screened and they approximately double the size of the lensing effects compared to GR. The difference is largely determined by the direct effects of the fifth force on lensing and less so by the modified density profiles. For this model, we also discuss the subtle impact on the force and lensing calculations caused by the screening effects of haloes that exist in and around voids. In the Nonlocal model, the impact of the modified density profiles and the direct modifications to lensing are comparable, but they boost the lensing signal by only $\approx 10\%$, compared with that of GR. Overall, our results suggest that lensing by voids is a promising tool to test models of gravity that modify lensing.

A. C. O. Leite, C. J. A. P. Martins

In previous work [Amendola {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D86 (2012) 063515], Principal Component Analysis based methods to constrain the dark energy equation of state using Type Ia supernovae and other low redshift probes were extended to spectroscopic tests of the stability fundamental couplings, which can probe higher redshifts. Here we use them to quantify the gains in sensitivity obtained by combining spectroscopic measurements expected from ESPRESSO at the VLT and the high-resolution ultra-stable spectrograph for the E-ELT (known as ELT-HIRES) with future supernova surveys. In addition to simulated low and intermediate redshift supernova surveys, we assess the dark energy impact of high-redshift supernovas detected by JWST and characterized by the E-ELT or TMT. Our results show that a detailed characterization of the dark energy properties beyond the acceleration phase (i.e., deep in the matter era) is viable, and may reach as deep as redshift 4.

Mehmet Alpaslan, Simon Driver, Aaron S. G. Robotham,

We explore trends in galaxy properties with Mpc-scale structures using catalogues of environment and large scale structure from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Existing GAMA catalogues of large scale structure, group and pair membership allow us to construct galaxy stellar mass functions for different environmental types. To avoid simply extracting the known underlying correlations between galaxy properties and stellar mass, we create a mass matched sample of galaxies with stellar masses between $9.5 \leq \log{M_*/h^{-2} M_{\odot}} \leq 11$ for each environmental population. Using these samples, we show that mass normalised galaxies in different large scale environments have similar energy outputs, $u-r$ colours, luminosities, and morphologies. Extending our analysis to group and pair environments, we show galaxies that are not in groups or pairs exhibit similar characteristics to each other regardless of broader environment. For our mass controlled sample, we fail to see a strong dependence of S\'{e}rsic index or galaxy luminosity on halo mass, but do find that it correlates very strongly with colour. Repeating our analysis for galaxies that have not been mass controlled introduces and amplifies trends in the properties of galaxies in pairs, groups, and large scale structure, indicating that stellar mass is the most important predictor of the galaxy properties we examine, as opposed to environmental classifications.

Masayuki Akiyama, Yoshihiro Ueda, Mike G. Watson,

We report the multi-wavelength identification of the X-ray sources found in the Subaru-XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) using deep imaging data covering the wavelength range between the far-UV to the mid-IR. We select a primary counterpart of each X-ray source by applying the likelihood ratio method to R-band, 3.6micron, near-UV, and 24micron source catalogs as well as matching catalogs of AGN candidates selected in 1.4GHz radio and i'-band variability surveys. Once candidates of Galactic stars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources in a nearby galaxy, and clusters of galaxies are removed there are 896 AGN candidates in the sample. We conduct spectroscopic observations of the primary counterparts with multi-object spectrographs in the optical and NIR; 65\% of the X-ray AGN candidates are spectroscopically-identified. For the remaining X-ray AGN candidates, we evaluate their photometric redshift with photometric data in 15 bands. Utilising the multi-wavelength photometric data of the large sample of X-ray selected AGNs, we evaluate the stellar masses, M*, of the host galaxies of the narrow-line AGNs. The distribution of the stellar mass is remarkably constant from z=0.1 to 4.0. The relation between M* and 2--10 keV luminosity can be explained with strong cosmological evolution of the relationship between the black hole mass and M*. We also evaluate the scatter of the UV-MIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of the X-ray AGNs as a function of X-ray luminosity and absorption to the nucleus. The scatter is compared with galaxies which have redshift and stellar mass distribution matched with the X-ray AGN. The UV-NIR SEDs of obscured X-ray AGNs are similar to those of the galaxies in the matched sample. In the NIR-MIR range, the median SEDs of X-ray AGNs are redder, but the scatter of the SEDs of the X-ray AGN broadly overlaps that of the galaxies in the matched sample.

I. Jack, D. R. T. Jones, C. Poole

The a-function is a proposed quantity defined for quantum field theories which has a monotonic behaviour along renormalisation group flows, being related to the beta-functions via a gradient flow equation involving a positive definite metric. We demonstrate the existence of a candidate a-function for renormalisable Chern-Simons theories in three dimensions, involving scalar and fermion fields, in both non-supersymmetric and supersymmetric cases.

Victor E. Ambrus, Elizabeth Winstanley

The Schwinger-de Witt and Hadamard methods are used to obtain renormalised vacuum expectation values for the fermion condensate, charge current and stress-energy tensor of a quantum fermion field of arbitrary mass on four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time. The quantum field is in the global anti-de Sitter vacuum state. The results are compared with those obtained using the Pauli-Villars and zeta-function regularisation methods, respectively.

Christian Fidler, Cornelius Rampf, Thomas Tram,

The initial conditions for $N$-body simulations are usually generated by applying the Zel'dovich approximation to the initial displacements of the particles using an initial power spectrum of density fluctuations generated by an Einstein-Boltzmann solver. We show that the initial displacements generated in this way generally receive a first-order relativistic correction. We define a new gauge, the $N$-body gauge, in which this relativistic correction is absent and show that a conventional Newtonian $N$-body simulation includes all first-order relativistic contributions if we identify the coordinates in Newtonian simulations with those in the $N$-body gauge.

Spyros Basilakos, Nick E. Mavromatos, Joan Sola

We describe the primeval inflationary phase of the early Universe within a quantum field theoretical (QFT) framework that can be viewed as the effective action of vacuum decay in the early times. Interestingly enough, the model accounts for the "graceful exit" of the inflationary phase into the standard radiation regime. The underlying QFT framework considered here is Supergravity (SUGRA), more specifically an existing formulation in which the Starobinsky-type inflation (de-Sitter background) emerges from the quantum corrections to the effective action after integrating out the gravitino fields in their (dynamically induced) massive phase. We also demonstrate that the structure of the effective action in this model is consistent with the generic idea of renormalization group (RG) running of the cosmological parameters, specifically it follows from the corresponding RG equation for the vacuum energy density as a function of the Hubble rate, $\rho_{\Lambda}(H)$. Overall our combined approach amounts to a concrete-model realization of inflation triggered by vacuum decay in a fundamental physics context which, as it turns out, can also be extended for the remaining epochs of the cosmological evolution until the current dark energy era.

Kumar S. Gupta, E. Harikumar, Tajron Jurić,

We obtain an exact analytic expression for the quasinormal modes of a noncommutative massless scalar field in the background of a massive spinless BTZ black hole up to the first order in the deformation parameter. We also show that the equations of motion governing these quasinormal modes are identical in form to the equations of motion of a commutative massive scalar field in the background of a fictitious massive spinning BTZ black hole. This results hints at a duality between the commutative and noncommutative systems in the background of a BTZ black hole. Using the obtained results for quasinormal mode frequencies, the area and entropy spectra for the BTZ black hole in the presence of noncommutativity are calculated. In particular, the separations between the neighboring values of these spectra are determined and it is found that they are nonuniform. Therefore, it appears that the noncommutativity leads to a non-equispaced (discrete) area and entropy spectra.

Fergus Simpson, Chris Blake, John A. Peacock,

We present the first cosmological measurement derived from a galaxy density field subject to a `clipping' transformation. By enforcing an upper bound on the galaxy number density field in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey (GAMA), contributions from the nonlinear processes of virialisation and galaxy bias are greatly reduced. This leads to a galaxy power spectrum which is easier to model, without calibration from numerical simulations. We develop a theoretical model for the power spectrum of a clipped field in redshift space, which is exact for the case of anisotropic Gaussian fields. Clipping is found to extend the applicability of the conventional Kaiser prescription by more than a factor of three in wavenumber, or a factor of thirty in terms of the number of Fourier modes. By modelling the galaxy power spectrum on scales k < 0.3 h/Mpc and density fluctuations $\delta_g < 4$ we measure the normalised growth rate $f\sigma_8(z = 0.18) = 0.29 \pm 0.10$.

A. Lazanu, C. J. A. P. Martins, E. P. S. Shellard

We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy-momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.

Jian-hua He, Baojiu Li, Adam J. Hawken

Using N-body simulations, we measure the power spectrum of the effective dark matter density field, which is defined through the modified Poisson equation in $f(R)$ cosmologies. We find that when compared to the conventional dark matter power spectrum, the effective power spectrum deviates more significantly from the $\Lambda$CDM model. For models with $f_{R0}=-10^{-4}$, the deviation can exceed 150\% while the deviation of the conventional matter power spectrum is less than 50\%. Even for models with $f_{R0}=-10^{-6}$, for which the conventional matter power spectrum is very close to the $\Lambda$CDM prediction, the effective power spectrum shows sizeable deviations. Our results indicate that traditional analyses based on the dark matter density field may seriously underestimate the impact of $f(R)$ gravity on galaxy clustering. We therefore suggest the use of the effective density field in such studies.

Hans A. Winther, Pedro G. Ferreira

Theories of modified gravity, in both the linear and fully non-linear regime, are often studied under the assumption that the evolution of the new (often scalar) degree of freedom present in the theory is quasi-static. This approximation significantly simplifies the study of the theory, and one often has good reason to believe that it should hold. Nevertheless it is a crucial assumption that should be explicitly checked whenever possible. In this paper we do so for the Vainshtein mechanism. By solving for the full spatial and time evolution of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati and the Cubic Galileon model, in a spherical symmetric spacetime, we are able to demonstrate that the Vainshtein solution is a stable attractor and forms no matter what initial conditions we take for the scalar field. Furthermore,the quasi-static approximation is also found to be a very good approximation whenever it exists. For the best-fit Cubic Galileon model, however, we find that for deep voids at late times, the numerical solution blows up at the same time as the quasi-static solution ceases to exist. We argue that this phenomenon is a true instability of the model.

Alexandre Barreira, Baojiu Li, Elise Jennings,

We determine the concentration-mass relation of 19 X-ray selected galaxy clusters from the CLASH survey in theories of gravity that directly modify the lensing potential. We model the clusters as NFW haloes and fit their lensing signal, in the Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity models, to the lensing convergence profiles of the clusters. We discuss a number of important issues that need to be taken into account, associated with the use of nonparametric and parametric lensing methods, as well as assumptions about the background cosmology. Our results show that the concentration and mass estimates in the modified gravity models are, within the errorbars, the same as in $\Lambda$CDM. This result demonstrates that, for the Nonlocal model, the modifications to gravity are too weak at the cluster redshifts, and for the Galileon model, the screening mechanism is very efficient inside the cluster radius. However, at distances $\sim \left[2-20\right] {\rm Mpc}/h$ from the cluster center, we find that the surrounding force profiles are enhanced by $\sim20-40\%$ in the Cubic Galileon model. This has an impact on dynamical mass estimates, which means that tests of gravity based on comparisons between lensing and dynamical masses can also be applied to the Cubic Galileon model.

Markus Ahlers, Yang Bai, Vernon Barger, Ran Lu

We study the contribution of Galactic sources to the flux of astrophysical neutrinos recently observed by the IceCube Collaboration. We show that the Galactic diffuse neutrino emission consistent with $\gamma$-ray (Fermi-LAT) and cosmic ray data (KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and CREAM) is expected to account for only 4%$-$8% of the IceCube flux above 60 TeV. Direct neutrino emission from cosmic ray-gas ($pp$) interactions in the sources would require an unusually large average opacity above 0.01. On the other hand, we find that the IceCube events already probe Galactic neutrino scenarios via the distribution of event arrival directions. We show that most Galactic scenarios can only have a limited contribution to the astrophysical signal: diffuse Galactic emission ($\lesssim50$%), quasi-diffuse emission of neutrino sources ($\lesssim65$%), extended diffuse emission from the Fermi Bubbles ($\lesssim25$%) or unidentified TeV $\gamma$-ray sources ($\lesssim25$%). Presently, dark matter decay remains unconstrained.

Zong-Gang Mou, Paul M. Saffin, Anders Tranberg

We present a first-principles numerical computation of the baryon asymmetry in electroweak-scale baryogenesis. For the scenario of Cold Baryogenesis, we consider a one fermion-family reduced CP-violating two Higgs-doublet model, including a classical SU(2)-gauge/two-Higgs sector coupled to one quantum left-handed fermion doublet and two right-handed singlets. Separately, the C(CP) breaking of the two-Higgs potential and the C and P breaking of the gauge-fermion interactions do not provide a baryon asymmetry. Only when combined does baryogenesis occur. Through large-scale computer simulations, we compute the asymmetry for one particularly favourable scalar potential. The numerical signal is at the boundary of what is numerically discernible with the available computer resources, but we tentatively find an asymmetry of $

C. J. A. P. Martins, A. M. M. Pinho

We use astrophysical and atomic clock tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$, together with Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, to constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, $\zeta$, to the electromagnetic sector) the $\alpha$ variation. We show how current data tightly constrains a combination of $\zeta$ and the dark energy equation of state $w_0$. At the $95\%$ confidence level and marginalizing over $w_0$ we find $

Nemanja Kaloper, Antonio Padilla, David Stefanyszyn, George Zahariade

We present a manifestly local, diffeomorphism invariant and locally Poincare invariant formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In this theory, quantum vacuum energy generated by matter loops is cancelled by auxiliary fields. The auxiliary fields decouple from gravity almost completely. Their only residual effect is an {\it a priori} arbitrary, finite contribution to the curvature of the background geometry, which is radiatively stable. Its value is to be determined by a measurement, like the finite part of any radiatively stable UV-sensitive quantity in quantum field theory

Jean Alexandre, James Brister

We study how quantum fluctuations of the metric in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity influence the propagation of classical fields (complex scalar and photon). The effective Lorentz-symmetry violation induced by the breaking of 4-dimensional diffeomorphism is then evaluated, by comparing the dressed dispersion relations for both external fields. The constraint of vanishing 3-dimensional Ricci scalar is imposed in the path integral, which therefore explicitly depends on two propagating gravitational degrees of freedom only. Because the matter fields are classical, the present model contains only logarithmic divergences. Furthermore, it imposes the characteristic Horava-Lifshitz scale to be smaller than $10^{10}$ GeV, if one wishes not to violate the current bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation.

Yuting Wang, Gong-Bo Zhao, David Wands,

An interaction between the vacuum energy and dark matter is an intriguing possibility which may offer a way of solving the cosmological constant problem. Adopting a general prescription for momentum exchange between the two dark components, we reconstruct the temporal evolution of the coupling strength between dark matter and vacuum energy, $\alpha(a)$ in a non-parametric Bayesian approach using the combined observational datasets from the cosmic microwave background, supernovae and large scale structure. An evolving interaction between the vacuum energy and dark matter removes some of the tensions between different types of datasets, and is favoured at $\sim95\%$ CL if we include the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements of the BOSS Lyman-$\alpha$ forest sample.

Tiberiu Harko, Francisco S. N. Lobo

The possibility that dark matter, whose existence is inferred from the study of the galactic rotation curves, and from the mass deficit in galaxy clusters, can be in a form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate, has been extensively investigated lately. In the present work, we consider a detailed analysis of the astrophysical properties of the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter halos that could provide clear observational signatures that help discriminate between different dark matter models. In the Bose-Einstein condensation model dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, gravitationally confined Newtonian gas, whose density and pressure are related by a polytropic equation of state with index $n=1$. The mass and gravitational properties of the condensate halos are obtained in a systematic form, including the mean logarithmic slopes of the density and of the tangential velocity. The lensing properties of the condensate dark matter are investigated in detail. In particular, a general analytical formula for the surface density, an important quantity that defines the lensing properties of a dark matter halos, is obtained in the form of series expansions. This enables arbitrary-precision calculations of the surface mass density, deflection angle, deflection potential, and of the magnification factor, thus giving the possibility of the comparison of the predicted lensing properties of the condensate dark matter halos with observations. The stability properties of the condensate halos are also investigated by using the scalar and the tensor virial theorems, respectively, and the virial perturbation equation for condensate dark matter halos is derived.

Denis Comelli, Marco Crisostomi, Kazuya Koyama,

The basic building block for Lorentz invariant and ghost free massive gravity is the square root of the combination $g^{-1}\eta\,$, where $g^{-1}$ is the inverse of the physical metric and $\eta$ is a reference metric. Since the square root of a matrix is not uniquely defined, it is possible to have physically inequivalent potentials corresponding to different branches. We show that around Minkowski background the only perturbatively well defined branch is the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley. On the other hand, if Lorentz symmetry is broken spontaneously, other potentials exist with a standard perturbative expansion. We show this explicitly building new Lorentz invariant, ghost-free massive gravity potentials for theories that in the background preserve rotational invariance, but break Lorentz boosts.

Kalliopi Petraki, Marieke Postma, Michael Wiechers

If dark matter couples directly to a light force mediator, then it may form bound states in the early universe and in the non-relativistic environment of haloes today. In this work, we establish a field-theoretic framework for the computation of bound-state formation cross-sections, de-excitation and decay rates, in theories with long-range interactions. Using this formalism, we carry out specific computations for scalar particles interacting either via a light scalar or vector mediator. At low relative velocities of the interacting particles, the formation of bound states is enhanced by the Sommerfeld effect. For particle-antiparticle pairs, we show that bound-state formation can be faster than annihilation into radiation in the regime where the Sommerfeld effect is important. The field-theoretic formalism outlined here can be generalised to compute bound-state formation cross-sections in a variety of theories, including theories featuring non-Abelian (albeit non-confining) interactions, such as the electroweak interactions.

Jose Miguel No

A cosmological first order electroweak phase transition could explain the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe. Such a phase transition does not occur in the Standard Model, while it becomes possible with the existence of a second Higgs doublet in Nature. We obtain the properties of the new scalars $H_0$, $A_0$ and $H^{\pm}$ that lead to such a phase transition, showing that its characteristic signature at LHC would be the observation of the decay $A_0 \rightarrow H_0 Z$. We analyze the LHC search prospects for this decay in the $\ell \ell b\bar{b}$ and $\ell \ell W^{+} W^{-}$ final states, showing that either one is promising at the early stages of the 14 TeV run.

Nina Roth, Andrew Pontzen, Hiranya V. Peiris

We propose a method to generate `genetically-modified' (GM) initial conditions for high-resolution simulations of galaxy formation in a cosmological context. Building on the Hoffman-Ribak algorithm, we start from a reference simulation with fully random initial conditions, then make controlled changes to specific properties of a single halo (such as its mass and merger history). The algorithm demonstrably makes minimal changes to other properties of the halo and its environment, allowing us to isolate the impact of a given modification. As a significant improvement over previous work, we are able to calculate the abundance of the resulting objects relative to the reference simulation. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of cosmic structures and epochs; here we study two problems as a proof-of-concept. First, we investigate the change in density profile and concentration as the collapse time of three individual halos are varied at fixed final mass, showing good agreement with previous statistical studies using large simulation suites. Second, we modify the $z=0$ mass of halos to show that our theoretical abundance calculations correctly recover the halo mass function. The results demonstrate that the technique is robust, opening the way to controlled experiments in galaxy formation using hydrodynamic zoom simulations.

Andrew Johnson, Chris Blake, Jason Dossett,

We present measurements of both scale- and time-dependent deviations from the standard gravitational field equations. These late-time modifications are introduced separately for relativistic and non-relativistic particles, by way of the parameters $G_{\rm matter}(k,z)$ and $G_{\rm light}(k,z)$ using two bins in both scale and time, with transition wavenumber $0.01$ Mpc$^{-1}$ and redshift 1. We emphasize the use of two dynamical probes to constrain this set of parameters, galaxy power spectrum multipoles and the direct peculiar velocity power spectrum, which probe fluctuations on different scales. The multipole measurements are derived from the WiggleZ and BOSS Data Release 11 CMASS galaxy redshift surveys and the velocity power spectrum is measured from the velocity sub-sample of the 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey. We combine with additional cosmological probes including baryon acoustic oscillations, Type Ia SNe, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), lensing of the CMB, and the temperature--galaxy cross-correlation. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood analysis, we find the inferred best-fit parameter values of $G_{\rm matter}(k,z)$ and $G_{\rm light}(k,z)$ to be consistent with the standard model at the $95\%$ confidence level. Furthermore, accounting for the Alcock-Paczynski effect, we perform joint fits for the expansion history and growth index gamma; we measure $\gamma = 0.665 \pm 0.0669$ ($68\%$ C.L) for a fixed expansion history, and $\gamma = 0.73^{+0.08}_{-0.10}$ ($68\%$ C.L) when the expansion history is allowed to deviate from $\Lambda$CDM. With a fixed expansion history the inferred value is consistent with GR at the $95\%$ C.L; alternatively, a $2\sigma$ tension is observed when the expansion history is not fixed, this tension is worsened by the combination of growth and SNe data.

Felix Kahlhoefer, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg, Janis Kummer, Subir Sarkar

Self-interactions of dark matter particles can potentially lead to an observable separation between the dark matter halo and the stars of a galaxy moving through a region of large dark matter density. Such a separation has recently been observed in a galaxy falling into the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 3827. We estimated the DM self-interaction cross section needed to reproduce the observed effects and find that the sensitivity of Abell 3827 has been significantly overestimated in a previous study. Our corrected estimate is $\tilde{\sigma}/m_\text{DM} \sim 3\:\text{cm}^2\:\text{g}^{-1}$ when self-interactions result in an effective drag force and $\sigma/m_\text{DM} \sim 1.5\:\text{cm}^2\:\text{g}^{-1}$ for the case of contact interactions, in some tension with previous upper bounds.

David Wands, Oliver F. Piattella, Luciano Casarini

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation provides a remarkable window onto the early universe, revealing its composition and structure. In these lectures we review and discuss the physics underlying the main features of the CMB.

Nilanjan Banik, Adam J. Christopherson, Pierre Sikivie, Elisa Maria Todarello

We obtain solutions to the coupled Schr\"odinger-Poisson equations. The solutions describe the evolution of cold dark matter density perturbations in an otherwise homogeneous expanding Friedmann universe. We discuss the relationships between descriptions of cold dark matter in terms of a pressureless fluid, in terms of a wavefunction, of a classical scalar field, and a quantum scalar field. We identify the regimes where the various descriptions coincide and where they differ.

Roland de Putter, Olivier Doré, Daniel Green

Scale-dependent halo bias due to local primordial non-Gaussianity provides a strong test of single-field inflation. While it is universally understood that single-field inflation predicts negligible scale-dependent bias compared to current observational uncertainties, there is still disagreement on the exact level of scale-dependent bias at a level that could strongly impact inferences made from future surveys. In this paper, we clarify this confusion and derive in various ways that there is exactly zero scale-dependent bias in single-field inflation. Much of the current confusion follows from the fact that single-field inflation does predict a mode coupling of matter perturbations at the level of $f_{NL}^{loc} \approx -5/3$, which naively would lead to scale-dependent bias. However, we show explicitly that this mode coupling cancels out when perturbations are evaluated at a fixed physical scale rather than fixed coordinate scale. Furthermore, we show how the absence of scale-dependent bias can be derived easily in any gauge. This result can then be incorporated into a complete description of the observed galaxy clustering, including the previously studied general relativistic terms, which are important at the same level as scale-dependent bias of order $f_{NL}^{loc} \sim 1$. This description will allow us to draw unbiased conclusions about inflation from future galaxy clustering data.

Zachary Kenton, David J. Mulryne, Steven Thomas

We consider a higher order term in the $\delta N$ expansion for the CMB power asymmetry generated by a superhorizon isocurvature field fluctuation. The term can generate the asymmetry without requiring a large value of $f_{NL}$. Instead it produces a non-zero value of $g_{NL}$. A combination of constraints lead to an allowed region in $f_{NL}-g_{NL}$ space. To produce the asymmetry with this term without a large value of $f_{NL}$ we find that the isocurvature field needs to contribute less than the inflaton towards the power spectrum of the curvature perturbation.

Kazuya Koyama

Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) is tested accurately within the local universe i.e., the Solar System, but this leaves open the possibility that it is not a good description at the largest scales in the Universe. The standard model of cosmology assumes GR as the theory to describe gravity on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. The standard model of cosmology is based on a huge extrapolation of our limited knowledge of gravity. This discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe may require us to revise the theory of gravity and the standard model of cosmology based on GR. We will review recent progress in constructing modified gravity models as an alternative to dark energy and developing cosmological tests of gravity.

Planck Collaboration, P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim,

We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories, as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep imaging observations were obtained for most of those sources; spectroscopic observations in either in long-slit or multi-object modes were obtained for many. We found optical counterparts for 73 of the 78 candidates. This sample includes 53 spectroscopic redshifts determinations, 20 of them obtained with a multi-object spectroscopic mode. The sample contains new redshifts for 27 Planck clusters that were not included in the first Planck SZ source catalogue (PSZ1).

N. Laporte, I. Pérez-Fournon, J. A. Calanog,

We describe the search for Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) near the sub-millimeter bright starburst galaxy HFLS3 at $z$$=$6.34 and a study on the environment of this massive galaxy during the end of reionization.We performed two independent selections of LBGs on images obtained with the \textit{Gran Telescopio Canarias} (GTC) and the \textit{Hubble Space Telescope} (HST) by combining non-detections in bands blueward of the Lyman-break and color selection. A total of 10 objects fulfilling the LBG selection criteria at $z$$>$5.5 were selected over the 4.54 and 55.5 arcmin$^2$ covered by our HST and GTC images, respectively. The photometric redshift, UV luminosity, and the star-formation rate of these sources were estimated with models of their spectral energy distribution. These $z$$\sim$6 candidates have physical properties and number densities in agreement with previous results. The UV luminosity function at $z$$\sim$6 and a Voronoi tessellation analysis of this field shows no strong evidence for an overdensity of relatively bright objects (m$_{F105W}$$<$25.9) associated with \textit{HFLS3}. However, the over-density parameter deduced from this field and the surface density of objects can not excluded definitively the LBG over-density hypothesis. Moreover we identified three faint objects at less than three arcseconds from \textit{HFLS3} with color consistent with those expected for $z$$\sim$6 galaxies. Deeper data are needed to confirm their redshifts and to study their association with \textit{HFLS3} and the galaxy merger that may be responsible for the massive starburst.

Harry Wilcox, David Bacon, Robert C. Nichol,

The chameleon gravity model postulates the existence of a scalar field that couples with matter to mediate a fifth force. If it exists, this fifth force would influence the hot X-ray emitting gas filling the potential wells of galaxy clusters. However, it would not influence the clusters' weak lensing signal. Therefore, by comparing X-ray and weak lensing profiles, one can place upper limits on the strength of a fifth force. This technique has been attempted before using a single, nearby cluster (Coma, $z=0.02$). Here we apply the technique to the stacked profiles of 58 clusters at higher redshifts ($0.1<z<1.2$), including 12 new to the literature, using X-ray data from the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) and weak lensing data from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). Using a multi-parameter MCMC analysis, we constrain the two chameleon gravity parameters ($\beta$ and $\phi_{\infty}$). Our fits are consistent with general relativity, not requiring a fifth force. In the special case of $f(R)$ gravity (where $\beta = \sqrt{1/6}$), we set an upper limit on the background field amplitude today of $

António Cardoso

In this paper we look at a particular realization of Popper's thought experiment with correlated quantum particles and argue that, from the point of view of a nonlinear quantum physics and contrary to the orthodox interpretation, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is violated. Moreover, we show that this kind of experiments can easily be explained in an intuitive manner if we are willing to take a nonlinear approach.

Baoxuan Li, Pengchao Lu, Jianzhong Liu,

To explore new superconductors beyond the copper-based and iron-based systems is very important. The Ru element locates just below the Fe in the periodic table and behaves like the Fe in many ways. One of the common thread to induce high temperature superconductivity is to introduce moderate correlation into the system. In this paper, we report the significant enhancement of superconducting transition temperature from 3.84K to 5.77K by using a pressure only of 1.74 GPa in LaRu2P2 which has an iso-structure of the iron-based 122 superconductors. The ab-initio calculation shows that the superconductivity in LaRu2P2 at ambient pressure can be explained by the McMillan's theory with strong electron-phonon coupling. However, it is difficult to interpret the significant enhancement of Tc versus pressure within this picture. Detailed analysis of the pressure induced evolution of resistivity and upper critical field Hc2(T) reveals that the increases of Tc with pressure may be accompanied by the involvement of extra electronic correlation effect. This suggests that the Ru-based system has some commonality as the Fe-based superconductors.

Mark Hindmarsh, Stephan J. Huber, Kari Rummukainen, David J. Weir

We present details of numerical simulations of the gravitational radiation produced by a first order {thermal} phase transition in the early universe. We confirm that the dominant source of gravitational waves is sound waves generated by the expanding bubbles of the low-temperature phase. We demonstrate that the sound waves have a power spectrum with power-law form between the scales set by the average bubble separation (which sets the length scale of the fluid flow $L_\text{f}$) and the bubble wall width. The sound waves generate gravitational waves whose power spectrum also has a power-law form, at a rate proportional to $L_\text{f}$ and the square of the fluid kinetic energy density. We identify a dimensionless parameter $\tilde\Omega_\text{GW}$ characterising the efficiency of this "acoustic" gravitational wave production whose value is $8\pi\tilde\Omega_\text{GW} \simeq 0.8 \pm 0.1$ across all our simulations. We compare the acoustic gravitational waves with the standard prediction from the envelope approximation. Not only is the power spectrum steeper (apart from an initial transient) but the gravitational wave energy density is generically two orders of magnitude or more larger.

Anthea L. King, Paul Martini, Tamara M. Davis,

As part of the OzDES spectroscopic survey we are carrying out a large scale reverberation mapping study of $\sim$500 quasars over five years in the 30 deg$^2$ area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova fields. These quasars have redshifts ranging up to 4 and have apparent AB magnitudes between $16.8<r<22.5$ mag. The aim of the survey is to measure time lags between fluctuations in the quasar continuum and broad emission line fluxes of individual objects in order to measure black hole masses for a broad range of AGN and constrain the radius-luminosity ($R-L$) relationship. Here we investigate the expected efficiency of the OzDES reverberation mapping campaign and its possible extensions. We expect to recover lags for $\sim$35-45\% of the quasars. AGN with shorter lags and greater variability are more likely to yield a lag, and objects with lags $\lesssim$6 months or $\sim$1 year are expected be recovered the most accurately. The baseline OzDES reverberation mapping campaign is predicted to produce an unbiased measurement of the $R-L$ relationship parameters for H$\beta$, Mg II $\lambda$2798, and C IV $\lambda$1549. However, extending the baseline survey by either increasing the spectroscopic cadence, extending the survey season, or improving the emission line flux measurement accuracy will significantly improve the $R-L$ parameter constraints for all broad emission lines.

Chong Sheng Li, Hai Tao Li, Ding Yu Shao, Jian Wang

We present a precise theoretical prediction for the signal-background interference process of $gg(\to h^*) \to ZZ$, which is useful to constrain the Higgs boson decay width and to measure Higgs couplings to the SM particles. The approximate NNLO $K$-factor is in the range of $2.05-2.45$ ($1.85-2.25$), depending on $M_{ZZ}$, at the 8 (13) TeV LHC. And the soft gluon resummation can increase the approximate NNLO result by about $10\%$ at both the 8 TeV and 13 TeV LHC. The theoretical uncertainties including the scale, uncalculated multi-loop amplitudes of the background and PDF$+\alpha_s$ are roughly $\mathcal{O}(10\%)$ at ${\rm NNLL'}$. We also confirm that the approximate $K$-factors in the interference and the pure signal processes are the same.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

We present measurements of $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} =$ 200, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 11.5 and 7.7 GeV, as a function of event-by-event charge asymmetry, $A_{ch}$, based on data from the STAR experiment at RHIC. We find that $\pi^-$ ($\pi^+$) elliptic flow linearly increases (decreases) with charge asymmetry for most centrality bins at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{27 GeV}$ and higher. At $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}} = \text{200 GeV}$, the slope of the difference of $v_2$ between $\pi^-$ and $\pi^+$ as a function of $A_{ch}$ exhibits a centrality dependence, which is qualitatively similar to calculations that incorporate a chiral magnetic wave effect. Similar centrality dependence is also observed at lower energies.

Camille Bonvin, Chris Clarkson, Ruth Durrer,

We show that at second order, ensemble averages of observables and directional averages do not commute due to gravitational lensing -- observing the same thing in many directions over the sky is not the same as taking an ensemble average. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities that we often use as observables and can lead to a bias in parameter estimation. We derive the relation between the ensemble average and the directional average of an observable, at second order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of averages for making predictions of cosmological observables, focusing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble average of the distance in a given observed direction is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional average of the distance is decreased. For a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is not affected by second-order lensing perturbations. We also show that standard areas have an advantage over standard rulers, and we discuss the subtleties involved in averaging in the case of supernova observations.

Alexandre Barreira, Philippe Brax, Sebastien Clesse,

We show that Solar System tests can place very strong constraints on K-mouflage models of gravity, which are coupled scalar field models with nontrivial kinetic terms that screen the fifth force in regions of large gravitational acceleration. In particular, the bounds on the anomalous perihelion of the Moon imposes stringent restrictions on the K-mouflage Lagrangian density, which can be met when the contributions of higher-order operators in the static regime are sufficiently small. The bound on the rate of change of the gravitational strength in the Solar System constrains the coupling strength $\beta$ to be smaller than $0.1$. These two bounds impose tighter constraints than the results from the Cassini satellite and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Despite the Solar System restrictions, we show that it is possible to construct viable models with interesting cosmological predictions. In particular, relative to $\Lambda$-CDM, such models predict percent-level deviations for the clustering of matter and the number density of dark matter haloes. This makes these models predictive and testable by forthcoming observational missions.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

We report on measurements of dielectron ($e^+e^-$) production in Au$+$Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair using the STAR detector at RHIC. Systematic measurements of the dielectron yield as a function of transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) and collision centrality show an enhancement compared to a cocktail simulation of hadronic sources in the low invariant-mass region ($M_{ee}<$ 1 GeV/$c^2$). This enhancement cannot be reproduced by the $\rho$-meson vacuum spectral function. In minimum-bias collisions, in the invariant-mass range of 0.30 $-$ 0.76 GeV/$c^2$, integrated over the full $p_{\rm T}$ acceptance, the enhancement factor is 1.76 $\pm$ 0.06 (stat.) $\pm$ 0.26 (sys.) $\pm$ 0.29 (cocktail). The enhancement factor exhibits weak centrality and $p_{\rm T}$ dependence in STAR's accessible kinematic regions, while the excess yield in this invariant-mass region as a function of the number of participating nucleons follows a power-law shape with a power of 1.44 $\pm$ 0.10. Models that assume an in-medium broadening of the $\rho$ meson spectral function consistently describe the observed excess in these measurements. Additionally, we report on measurements of $\omega$ and $\phi$-meson production through their $e^+e^-$ decay channel. These measurements show good agreement with Tsallis Blast-Wave model predictions as well as, in the case of the $\phi$-meson, results through its $K^+K^-$ decay channel. In the intermediate invariant-mass region (1.1$<M_{ee}<$ 3 GeV/$c^2$), we investigate the spectral shapes from different collision centralities. Physics implications for possible in-medium modification of charmed hadron production and other physics sources are discussed.

Yan Wang, Chong Sheng Li, Ze Long Liu

We investigate the resummation effects with a jet veto, for WZ and ZZ productions at the LHC in soft-collinear effective theory. We present the invariant mass distributions and the total cross section with different jet veto and jet radius for these process at Next-to-Next-to-Leading-Logarithmic level. Our results show that the jet-veto resummation can increase the jet-veto cross section and decrease the scale uncertainties, especially in the large center-of-mass energy. We find that for pt_veto>30 GeV and R=0.4, the resummation results can increase POWHEG+PYTHIA predictions by about 19% for WZ production and 18% for ZZ production, respectively. Our results agree with the CMS data for WZ productions within 2$\sigma$ C.L. at 8 TeV, which can explain the 2$\sigma$ discrepancy between the CMS experimental results and theoretical predictions based on NLO calculation with parton showers.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in $p^\uparrow+p$ collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of five standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities eta>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the rho-meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions. Comparing the results to data from lepton-nucleon scattering will test the universality of these spin-dependent quantities.

Matteo Tellarini, Ashley J. Ross, Gianmassimo Tasinato, David Wands

Primordial non-Gaussianity can lead to a scale-dependent bias in the density of collapsed halos relative to the underlying matter density. The galaxy power spectrum already provides constraints on local-type primordial non-Gaussianity complementary those from the cosmic microwave background (CMB), while the bispectrum contains additional shape information and has the potential to outperform CMB constraints in future. We develop the bias model for the halo density contrast in the presence of local-type primordial non-Gaussianity, deriving a bivariate expansion up to second order in terms of the local linear matter density contrast and the local gravitational potential in Lagrangian coordinates. Non-linear evolution of the matter density introduces a non-local tidal term in the halo model. Furthermore, the presence of local-type non-Gaussianity in the Lagrangian frame leads to a novel non-local convective term in the Eulerian frame, that is proportional to the displacement field when going beyond the spherical collapse approximation. We use an extended Press-Schechter approach to evaluate the halo mass function and thus the halo bispectrum. We show that including these non-local terms in the halo bispectra can lead to corrections of up to $25\%$ for some configurations, on large scales or at high redshift.

K. Nandra, E. S. Laird, J. A. Aird,

We present the results of deep \chandra\ imaging of the central region of the Extended Groth Strip, the AEGIS-X Deep (AEGIS-XD) survey. When combined with previous \chandra\ observations of a wider area of the strip, AEGIS-X Wide (AEGIS-XW; Laird et~al. 2009), these provide data to a nominal exposure depth of 800ks in the three central ACIS-I fields, a region of approximately $0.29$~deg$^{2}$. This is currently the third deepest X-ray survey in existence, a factor $\sim 2-3$ shallower than the Chandra Deep Fields (CDFs) but over an area $\sim 3$ times greater than each CDF. We present a catalogue of 937 point sources detected in the deep \chandra\ observations. We present identifications of our X-ray sources from deep ground-based, Spitzer, GALEX and HST imaging. Using a likelihood ratio analysis, we associate multi band counterparts for 929/937 of our X-ray sources, with an estimated 95~\% reliability, making the identification completeness approximately 94~\% in a statistical sense. Reliable spectroscopic redshifts for 353 of our X-ray sources are provided predominantly from Keck (DEEP2/3) and MMT Hectospec, so the current spectroscopic completeness is $\sim 38$~per cent. For the remainder of the X-ray sources, we compute photometric redshifts based on multi-band photometry in up to 35 bands from the UV to mid-IR. Particular attention is given to the fact that the vast majority the X-ray sources are AGN and require hybrid templates. Our photometric redshifts have mean accuracy of $\sigma=0.04$ and an outlier fraction of approximately 5\%, reaching $\sigma=0.03$ with less than 4\% outliers in the area covered by CANDELS . The X-ray, multi-wavelength photometry and redshift catalogues are made publicly available.

Christian G. Boehmer, Patrizio Neff, Belgin Seymenoglu

The Cosserat model generalises an elastic material taking into account the possible microstructure of the elements of the material continuum. In particular, within the Cosserat model the structured material point is rigid and can only experience microrotation, which is also known as micropolar elasticity. We present the geometrically nonlinear theory taking into account all possible interaction terms between the elastic and microelastic structure. This is achieved by considering the irreducible pieces of the deformation gradient and of the dislocation curvature tensor. In addition we also consider the so-called Cosserat coupling term. In this setting we seek soliton type solutions assuming small elastic displacements, however, we allow the material points to experience full rotations which are not assumed to be small. By choosing a particular ansatz we are able to reduce the system of equations to a Sine-Gordon type equation which is known to have soliton solutions.

J. Briggs, S. J. Pennycook, J. R. Fergusson,

We present a case study describing efforts to optimise and modernise "Modal", the simulation and analysis pipeline used by the Planck satellite experiment for constraining general non-Gaussian models of the early universe via the bispectrum (or three-point correlator) of the cosmic microwave background radiation. We focus on one particular element of the code: the projection of bispectra from the end of inflation to the spherical shell at decoupling, which defines the CMB we observe today. This code involves a three-dimensional inner product between two functions, one of which requires an integral, on a non-rectangular domain containing a sparse grid. We show that by employing separable methods this calculation can be reduced to a one-dimensional summation plus two integrations, reducing the overall dimensionality from four to three. The introduction of separable functions also solves the issue of the non-rectangular sparse grid. This separable method can become unstable in certain cases and so the slower non-separable integral must be calculated instead. We present a discussion of the optimisation of both approaches. We show significant speed-ups of ~100x, arising from a combination of algorithmic improvements and architecture-aware optimisations targeted at improving thread and vectorisation behaviour. The resulting MPI/OpenMP hybrid code is capable of executing on clusters containing processors and/or coprocessors, with strong-scaling efficiency of 98.6% on up to 16 nodes. We find that a single coprocessor outperforms two processor sockets by a factor of 1.3x and that running the same code across a combination of both microarchitectures improves performance-per-node by a factor of 3.38x. By making bispectrum calculations competitive with those for the power spectrum (or two-point correlator) we are now able to consider joint analysis for cosmological science exploitation of new data.

Gaetano Lambiase, Mairi Sakellariadou, Antonio Stabile, Arturo Stabile

We investigate the propagation of gravitational waves in the context of fourth order gravity nonminimally coupled to a massive scalar field. Using the damping of the orbital period of coalescing stellar binary systems, we impose constraints on the free parameters of extended gravity models. In particular, we find that the variation of the orbital period is a function of three mass scales which depend on the free parameters of the model under consideration; we can constrain these mass scales from current observational data.

Mariusz P. Dabrowski, H. Gohar, Vincenzo Salzano

We formulate the basic framework of thermodynamical entropic force cosmology which allows variation of the gravitational constant $G$ and the speed of light $c$. Three different approaches to the formulation of the field equations are presented. Some cosmological solutions for each framework are given and one of them is tested against combined observational data (supernovae, BAO, and CMB). From the fit of the data it is found that the Hawking temperature numerical coefficient $\gamma$ is two to four orders of magnitude less than usually assumed on the geometrical ground theoretical value of $O(1)$ and that it is also compatible with zero. Besides, in the entropic scenario we observationally test that the fit of the data is allowed for the speed of light $c$ growing and the gravitational constant $G$ diminishing during the evolution of the universe. We also obtain a bound on the variation of $c$ to be $\Delta c/c \propto 10^{-5} >0$ which is at least one order of magnitude weaker than the quasar spectra observational bound.

Jonathan S. Horner, Carlo R. Contaldi

The bispectrum of single-field inflationary trajectories in which the speed of sound of the inflationary trajectories $c_s$ is constant but not equal to the speed of light $c=1$ is explored. The trajectories are generated as random realisations of the Hubble Slow-Roll (HSR) hierarchy and the bispectra are calculated using numerical techniques that extends previous work. This method allows for out-of-slow-roll models with non-trivial time dependence and arbitrarily low $c_s$. The ensembles obtained using this method yield distributions for the shape and scale-dependence of the bispectrum and their relations with the standard inflationary parameters such as scalar spectral tilt $n_s$ and tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$. The distributions demonstrate the squeezed-limit consistency relations for arbitrary single-field inflationary models.

Camille Bonvin, Chris Clarkson, Ruth Durrer,

It has recently been shown that second-order corrections to the background distance-redshift relation can build up significantly at large redshifts, due to an aggregation of gravitational lensing events. This shifts the expectation value of the distance to the CMB by 1%. In this paper we show that this shift is already properly accounted for in standard CMB analyses. We clarify the role that the area distance to the CMB plays in the presence of second-order lensing corrections.

António Cardoso, João L. Cordovil, José R. Croca

In this paper we will first look at a particular quantum eraser setup to show that this type of experiments can be understood in an intuitive manner if we are willing to take a complex nonlinear approach, without the need to invoke Niels Bohr's complementarity or quantum entanglement between two particles. We will then discuss a recent experiment of the same type that does not erase the interference pattern when which-path information is available, and argue that this result is in clear contradiction with the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics but perfectly understandable in the framework of nonlinear quantum physics.

Jose J. Blanco-Pillado, Mafalda Dias, Jonathan Frazer, Kepa Sousa

Power suppression of the cosmic microwave background on the largest observable scales could provide valuable clues about the particle physics underlying inflation. Here we consider the prospect of power suppression in the context of the multifield landscape. Based on the assumption that our observable universe emerges from a tunnelling event and that the relevant features originate purely from inflationary dynamics, we find that the power spectrum not only contains information on single-field dynamics, but also places strong con- straints on all scalar fields present in the theory. We find that the simplest single-field models giving rise to power suppression do not generalise to multifield models in a straightforward way, as the resulting superhorizon evolution of the curvature perturbation tends to erase any power suppression present at horizon crossing. On the other hand, multifield effects do present a means of generating power suppression which to our knowledge has so far not been considered. We propose a mechanism to illustrate this, which we dub flume inflation.

Daniel B Thomas, Marco Bruni, Kazuya Koyama,

Many modified gravity theories are under consideration in cosmology as the source of the accelerated expansion of the universe and linear perturbation theory, valid on the largest scales, has been examined in many of these models. However, smaller non-linear scales offer a richer phenomenology with which to constrain modified gravity theories. Here, we consider the Hu-Sawicki form of $f(R)$ gravity and apply the post-Friedmann approach to derive the leading order equations for non-linear scales, i.e. the equations valid in the Newtonian-like regime. We reproduce the standard equations for the scalar field, gravitational slip and the modified Poisson equation in a coherent framework. In addition, we derive the equation for the leading order correction to the Newtonian regime, the vector potential. We measure this vector potential from $f(R)$ N-body simulations at redshift zero and one, for two values of the $f_{R_0}$ parameter. We find that the vector potential at redshift zero in $f(R)$ gravity can be close to 50\% larger than in GR on small scales for $

Bridget Falck, Kazuya Koyama, Gong-bo Zhao

Theories which modify general relativity to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe often use screening mechanisms to satisfy constraints on Solar System scales. We investigate the effects of the cosmic web and the local environmental density of dark matter halos on the screening properties of the Vainshtein and chameleon screening mechanisms. We compare the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, mass functions of dark matter halos, mass and radial dependence of screening, velocity dispersions and peculiar velocities, and environmental dependence of screening mechanisms in $f(R)$ and nDGP models. Using the ORIGAMI cosmic web identification routine we find that the Vainshtein mechanism depends on the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, since these are defined according to the dimensionality of their collapse, while the chameleon mechanism shows no morphology dependence. The chameleon screening of halos and their velocity dispersions depend on halo mass, and small halos and subhalos can be environmentally screened in the chameleon mechanism. On the other hand, the screening of halos in the Vainshtein mechanism does not depend on mass nor environment, and their velocity dispersions are suppressed. The peculiar velocities of halos in the Vainshtein mechanism are enhanced because screened objects can still feel the fifth force generated by external fields, while peculiar velocities of chameleon halos are suppressed when the halo centers are screened.

Marc Lilley, Patrick Peter

Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences.

Carsten van de Bruck, Adam J. Christopherson, Mathew Robinson

We consider a model of the early universe which consists of two scalar fields: the inflaton, and a second field which drives the stabilisation of the Planck mass (or gravitational constant). We show that the non-minimal coupling of this second field to the Ricci scalar sources a non-adiabatic pressure perturbation. By performing a fully numerical calculation we find, in turn, that this boosts the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum after inflation.

Nolan Denman, Mandana Amiri, Kevin Bandura,

We present the design and implementation of a custom GPU-based compute cluster that provides the correlation X-engine of the CHIME Pathfinder radio telescope. It is among the largest such systems in operation, correlating 32,896 baselines (256 inputs) over 400MHz of radio bandwidth. Making heavy use of consumer-grade parts and a custom software stack, the system was developed at a small fraction of the cost of comparable installations. Unlike existing GPU backends, this system is built around OpenCL kernels running on consumer-level AMD GPUs, taking advantage of low-cost hardware and leveraging packed integer operations to double algorithmic efficiency. The system achieves the required 105TOPS in a 10kW power envelope, making it among the most power-efficient X-engines in use today.

Vanessa Smer-Barreto, Andrew R. Liddle

The Pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) potential, defined through the amplitude $M^4$ and width $f$ of its characteristic potential $V(\phi) = M^4[1 + \cos(\phi~ /~ f)]$, is one of the best-suited models for the study of thawing quintessence. We analyse its present observational constraints by direct numerical solution of the scalar field equation of motion. Observational bounds are obtained using data from Union 2.1 for Supernovae, cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies from Planck plus WMAP polarization data, and baryon acoustic oscillations data. We find the parameter ranges for which PNGB quintessence remains a viable theory for dark energy. We compare the direct potential analysis and use of an approximate equation-of-state parameterization for thawing theories; this comparison highlights a strong prior dependence to the outcome coming from the choice of modelling methodology, which current data are not sufficient to override.

Marina Cortes, Henrique Gomes, Lee Smolin

We describe a class of modified gravity theories that deform general relativity in a way that breaks time reversal invariance and, very mildly, locality. The algebra of constraints, local physical degrees of freedom, and their linearized equations of motion, are unchanged, yet observable effects may be present on cosmological scales, which have implications for the early history of the universe. This is achieved in the Hamiltonian framework, in a way that requires the constant mean curvature gauge conditions and is, hence, inspired by shape dynamics.

C. J. A. P. Martins, P. E. Vielzeuf, M. Martinelli,

We study the detailed evolution of the fine-structure constant $\alpha$ in the string-inspired runaway dilaton class of models of Damour, Piazza and Veneziano. We provide constraints on this scenario using the most recent $\alpha$ measurements and discuss ways to distinguish it from alternative models for varying $\alpha$. For model parameters which saturate bounds from current observations, the redshift drift signal can differ considerably from that of the canonical $\Lambda$CDM paradigm at high redshifts. Measurements of this signal by the forthcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), together with more sensitive $\alpha$ measurements, will thus dramatically constrain these scenarios.

A. Merloni, T. Dwelly, M. Salvato,

We argue that the `changing look' AGN recently reported by LaMassa et al. could be a luminous flare produced by the tidal disruption of a super-solar mass star passing just a few gravitational radii outside the event horizon of a $\sim 10^8 M_{\odot}$ nuclear black hole. This flare occurred in a massive, star forming galaxy at redshift $z=0.312$, robustly characterized thanks to repeated late-time photometric and spectroscopic observations. By taking difference-photometry of the well sampled multi-year SDSS Stripe-82 light-curve, we are able to probe the evolution of the nuclear spectrum over the course of the outburst. The tidal disruption event (TDE) interpretation is consistent with the very rapid rise and the decay time of the flare, which displays an evolution consistent with the well-known $t^{-5/3}$ behaviour (with a clear superimposed re-brightening flare). Our analysis places constraints on the physical properties of the TDE, such as the putative disrupted star's mass and orbital parameters, as well as the size and temperature of the emitting material. The properties of the broad and narrow emission lines observed in two epochs of SDSS spectra provide further constraints on the circum-nuclear structure, and could be indicative that the system hosted a moderate-luminosity AGN as recently as a few $10^4$ years ago, and is likely undergoing residual accretion as late as ten years after peak, as seen from the broad H$\alpha$ emission line. We discuss the complex interplay between tidal disruption events and gas accretion episodes in galactic nuclei, highlighting the implications for future TDE searches and for estimates of their intrinsic rates.

Kohta Murase, Ranjan Laha, Shin'ichiro Ando, Markus Ahlers

Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse gamma-ray background data. Critical tests are possible by a detailed analysis and identification of the sub-TeV isotropic diffuse gamma-ray data observed by Fermi and future observations of sub-PeV gamma rays by observatories like HAWC or Tibet AS+MD. In addition, with several-year observations by next-generation telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2, muon neutrino searches for nearby dark matter halos such as the Virgo cluster should allow us to rule out or support the dark matter models, independently of gamma-ray and anisotropy tests.

Francesco Pace, Marc Manera, David J. Bacon,

In this work we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of halos. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter halos ($M>9\times 10^{12}~M_{\odot}$/h) and particles not included into halos. Mock halos reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at $z_{\rm s}=1$ the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40% at $\ell\approx 10^4$ with respect to the simulated halos. The large scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution outside the halos. In addition, to evaluate the contribution of substructures we have smeared out the intra-halo substructures in a N-body simulation while keeping the halo density profiles unchanged. For the matter power spectrum the effect of this smoothing is only of the order of 5%, but for lensing substructures are much more important: for $\ell\approx 10^4$ the internal structures contribute 30% of the total spectrum. These findings have important implications in the way mock catalogues have to be created, suggesting that some approximate methods currently used for galaxy surveys will be inadequate for future weak lensing surveys.

STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins,

We report the measurement of the phi(1020) meson production via the leptonic decay channel in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV from the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) experiment. The transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) spectrum is measured for 0.1 $\le p_{\rm T} \le 2.5$ GeV/$c$ at mid-rapidity ($

Geraint Pratten

In this paper we revisit non-spherical perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole in the context of $f(R)$ gravity. Previous studies were able to demonstrate the stability of the $f(R)$ Schwarzschild black hole against gravitational perturbations in both the even and odd parity sectors. In particular, it was seen that the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations in $f(R)$ gravity obey the same equations as their General Relativity counterparts. More recently, the 1+1+2 semi-tetrad formalism has been used to derive a set of two wave equations: one for transverse, trace-free (tensor) perturbations and one for the additional scalar modes that characterise fourth-order theories of gravitation. The master variable governing tensor perturbations was shown to be a modified Regge-Wheeler tensor obeying the same equation as in General Relativity. However, it is well known that there is a non-uniqueness in the definition of the master variable. In this paper we derive a set of two perturbation variables and their concomitant wave equations that describe gravitational perturbations in a covariant and gauge invariant manner. These variables can be related to the Newman-Penrose (NP) Weyl scalars as well as the master variables from the 2+2 formalism.

Daniel J. Mortlock

The standard Bayesian model formalism comparison cannot be applied to most cosmological models as they lack well-motivated parameter priors. However, if the data-set being used is separable then it is possible to use some of the data to obtain the necessary parameter distributions, the rest of the data being retained for model comparison. While such methods are not fully prescriptive, they provide a route to applying Bayesian model comparison in cosmological situations where it could not otherwise be used.

Johannes Noller, James H. C. Scargill

In this paper we investigate the decoupling limit of a particular class of multi-gravity theories, i.e. of theories of interacting spin-2 fields. We explicitly compute the interactions of helicity-0 modes in this limit, showing that they take on the form of multi-Galileons and dual forms. In the process we extend the recently discovered Galileon dualities, deriving a set of new multi-Galileon dualities. These are also intrinsically connected to healthy, but higher-derivative, multi-scalar field theories akin to `beyond Horndeski' models.

Luca Amendola, Frank Koennig, Matteo Martinelli,

The theory of bigravity offers one of the simplest possibilities to describe a massive graviton while having self-accelerating cosmological solutions without a cosmological constant. However, it has been shown recently that bigravity is affected by early-time fast growing modes on the tensor sector. Here we argue that we can only trust the linear analysis up to when perturbations are in the linear regime and use a cut-off to stop the growing of the metric perturbations. This analysis, although more consistent, still leads to growing tensor modes that are unacceptably large for the theory to be compatible with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), both in temperature and polarization spectra. In order to suppress the growing modes and make the model compatible with CMB spectra, we find it necessary to either fine-tune the initial conditions, modify the theory or set the cut-off for the tensor perturbations of the second metric much lower than unity. Initial conditions such that the growing mode is sufficiently suppresed can be achieved in scenarios in which inflation ends at the GeV scale.

Mairi Sakellariadou

A brief description of the elements of noncommutative spectral geometry as an approach to unification is presented. The physical implications of the doubling of the algebra are discussed. Some high energy phenomenological as well as various cosmological consequences are presented. A constraint in one of the three free parameters, namely the one related to the coupling constants at unification, is obtained, and the possible role of scalar fields is highlighted. A novel spectral action approach based upon zeta function regularisation, in order to address some of the issues of the traditional bosonic spectral action based on a cutoff function and a cutoff scale, is discussed.

Sam Young, Christian T. Byrnes

Primordial black holes (PBHs) are black holes which may have formed very early on during the radiation dominated era in the early universe. We present here a method by which the large scale perturbations in the density of primordial black holes may be used to place tight constraints on non-gaussianity if PBHs account for dark matter (DM). The presence of local-type non-gaussianity is known to have a significant effect on the abundance of primordial black holes, and modal coupling from the observed CMB scale modes can significantly alter the number density of PBHs that form within different regions of the universe, which appear as DM isocurvature modes. Using the recent \emph{Planck} constraints on isocurvature perturbations, we show that PBHs are excluded as DM candidates for even very small local-type non-gaussianity, $

Difu Shi, Baojiu Li, Jiaxin Han,

We investigate the properties of dark matter haloes and subhaloes in an $f(R)$ gravity model with $

Kiyoshi Masui, Mandana Amiri, Liam Connor,

We present a procedure for efficiently compressing astronomical radio data for high performance applications. Integrated, post-correlation data are first passed through a nearly lossless rounding step which compares the precision of the data to a generalized and calibration-independent form of the radiometer equation. This allows the precision of the data to be reduced in a way that has an insignificant impact on the data. The newly developed Bitshuffle lossless compression algorithm is subsequently applied. When the algorithm is used in conjunction with the HDF5 library and data format, data produced by the CHIME Pathfinder telescope is compressed to 28% of its original size and decompression throughputs in excess of 1 GB/s are obtained on a single core.

Markus Ahlers

The production of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos is tightly linked to the emission of hadronic gamma-rays. I will discuss the recent observation of TeV to PeV neutrinos by the IceCube Cherenkov telescope in the context of gamma-ray astronomy. The corresponding energy range of hadronic gamma-rays is not directly accessible by extragalactic gamma-ray astronomy due to interactions with cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma-ray background observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades and constrains hadronic emission scenarios. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma-rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. In general, the cross-correlation of neutrino emission with (extended) Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources will serve as the most sensitive probe for a future identification of neutrino sources.

M. F. Oliveira, C. J. A. P. Martins

We study the asymptotic scaling properties of domain wall networks with three different tensions in various cosmological epochs. We discuss the conditions under which a scale-invariant evolution of the network (which is well established for simpler walls) still applies, and also consider the limiting case where defects are locally planar and the curvature is concentrated in the junctions. We present detailed quantitative predictions for scaling densities in various contexts, which should be testable by means of future high-resolution numerical simulations.

Motonari Tonegawa, Tomonori Totani, Hiroyuki Okada,

FastSound is a galaxy redshift survey using the near-infrared Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, targeting H$\alpha$ emitters at $z \sim 1.18$--$1.54$ down to the sensitivity limit of H$\alpha$ flux $\sim 2 \times 10^{-16} \ \rm erg \ cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. The primary goal of the survey is to detect redshift space distortions (RSD), to test General Relativity by measuring the growth rate of large scale structure and to constrain modified gravity models for the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. The target galaxies were selected based on photometric redshifts and H$\alpha$ flux estimates calculated by fitting spectral energy distribution (SED) models to the five optical magnitudes of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Wide catalog. The survey started in March 2012, and all the observations were completed in July 2014. In total, we achieved $121$ pointings of FMOS (each pointing has a $30$ arcmin diameter circular footprint) covering $20.6$ deg$^2$ by tiling the four fields of the CFHTLS Wide in a hexagonal pattern. Emission lines were detected from $\sim 4,000$ star forming galaxies by an automatic line detection algorithm applied to 2D spectral images. This is the first in a series of papers based on FastSound data, and we describe the details of the survey design, target selection, observations, data reduction, and emission line detections.

G. Luzzi, R. T. Génova-Santos, C. J. A. P. Martins,

The CMB temperature-redshift relation, T_CMB(z)=T_0(1+z), is a key prediction of the standard cosmology, but is violated in many non standard models. Constraining possible deviations to this law is an effective way to test the LambdaCDM paradigm and to search for hints of new physics. We have determined T_CMB(z), with a precision up to 3%, for a subsample (104 clusters) of the Planck SZ cluster catalog, at redshift in the range 0.01-- 0.94, using measurements of the spectrum of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect obtained from Planck temperature maps at frequencies from 70 to 353 GHz. The method adopted to provide individual determinations of T_CMB(z) at cluster redshift relies on the use of SZ intensity change, Delta I_SZ(nu), at different frequencies, and on a Monte-Carlo Markov Chain approach. By applying this method to the sample of 104 clusters, we limit possible deviations of the form T_CMB(z)=T_0(1+z)^(1-beta) to be beta= 0.022 +/- 0.018, at 1 sigma uncertainty, consistent with the prediction of the standard model. Combining these measurements with previously published results we get beta=0.016+/-0.012.

Gordon Kane, Kuver Sinha, Scott Watson

We critically review the role of cosmological moduli in determining the post-inflationary history of the universe. Moduli are ubiquitous in string and M-theory constructions of beyond the Standard Model physics, where they parametrize the geometry of the compactification manifold. For those with masses determined by supersymmetry breaking this leads to their eventual decay slightly before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (without spoiling its predictions). This results in a matter dominated phase shortly after inflation ends, which can influence baryon and dark matter genesis, as well as observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the growth of large-scale structure. Given progress within fundamental theory, and guidance from dark matter and collider experiments, non-thermal histories have emerged as a robust and theoretically well-motivated alternative to a strictly thermal one. We review this approach to the early universe and discuss both the theoretical challenges and the observational implications.

Sirichai Chongchitnan

Cosmic voids have been shown to be an effective probe of cosmology, complementary to galaxy clusters. In this work, we present a simple theoretical framework for predicting of the size of the largest voids expected within a given redshift and volume. Our model is based on the exact extreme-value statistics which has previously been successfully applied to massive galaxy clusters. We implement our formalism using the void-abundance models and compare the extreme-void predictions to simulations and observations. We find that the simplest void models can only explain the extreme-void abundance with ad hoc parameter adjustments. We argue that extreme-void distributions should be used as an additional test on theories of void abundance.

Martin Gorbahn, Jose Miguel No, Veronica Sanz

Precise measurements of SM particles properties at the LHC allows to look for heavy New Physics in the context of an Effective Field Theory (EFT). These searches, however, often rely on kinematic regions where the validity of the EFT may be compromised. In this paper we propose to address this issue by comparing with benchmark models. The connection between models and their manifestations as EFTs at low energies allows us to quantify the breakdown of the EFT, and describe ways to combine different sources of constraints beyond Higgs physics. To illustrate these techniques, in this paper we propose a set of benchmark models based on extensions of the Higgs sector, namely the inclusion of a singlet, a dilaton and generic 2HDMs. We obtain the matching between these models and the EFT involving the Higgs, electroweak bosons and fermions. We then describe current and future indirect and direct constraints, consider the effect of correlations among the coefficients within models, and discuss the validity of the EFT.

Christian T. Byrnes, Ewan R. M. Tarrant

We introduce an alternative parametrisation for the scale dependence of the non-linearity parameter $f_{\rm NL}$ in quasi-local models of non-Gaussianity. Our parametrisation remains valid when $f_{\rm NL}$ changes sign, unlike the commonly adopted power law ansatz $f_{\rm NL}(k) \propto k^{ n_{f_{\rm NL}} }$. We motivate our alternative parametrisation by appealing to the self-interacting curvaton scenario, and as an application, we apply it to the CMB power asymmetry. Explaining the power asymmetry requires a strongly scale dependent non-Gaussianity. We show that regimes of model parameter space where $f_{\rm NL}$ is strongly scale dependent are typically associated with a large $g_{\rm NL}$ and quadrupolar power asymmetry, which can be ruled out by existing observational constraints.

Robert J. Hardwick, Christian T. Byrnes

We perform a Bayesian model comparison for scenarios within the quadratic curvaton model, determining the degree to which both are disfavoured with respect to the $\Lambda$CDM concordance model and single-field quadratic inflation, using the recent \emph{Planck} data release. Despite having three additional model parameters, the simplest curvaton scenario is not disfavoured relative to single-field quadratic inflation, and it becomes favoured against this single-field model when we include the joint BICEP/Keck/\emph{Planck} analysis. In all cases we assume an instantaneous inflaton decay and no surviving isocurvature perturbations. Despite the success of \emph{Planck} reaching its forecast measurement accuracy, we show that the current constraints on local non-Gaussianity are insufficiently precise to have any significant impact on the evidence ratios so far. We also determine the precision $\sigma(f_{\mathrm{NL}})$ required by future measurements assuming a fiducial value of $f_{\mathrm{NL}}=-5/4$ or $10.8$ to no longer disfavour the curvaton against the $\Lambda$CDM parametrisation, and we discuss the effect that the predicted increase in precision from future measurements on $f_{\mathrm{NL}}$ may have. We show that our results are not very sensitive to our choice of priors.

Kazuya Koyama, Jeremy Sakstein

Ghost-free theories beyond the Horndeski class exhibit a partial breaking of the Vainshtein mechanism inside non-relativistic sources of finite extent. We exploit this breaking to identify new and novel astrophysical probes of these theories. Non-relativistic objects feel a gravitational force that is weaker than that predicted by general relativity. The new equation of hydrostatic equilibrium equation is derived and solved to predict the modified behaviour of stars. It is found that main-sequence stars are dimmer and cooler than their general relativity counterparts but the red giant phase is largely indistinguishable. The rotation curves and lensing potential of Milky Way-like galaxies are calculated. The circular velocities are smaller than predicted by general relativity at fixed radius and the lensing mass is larger than the dynamical mass. We discuss potential astrophysical probes of these theories and identify strong lensing as a particularly promising candidate.

Moritz F. Linkmann, Arjun Berera, W. David McComb, Mairi E. McKay

A model equation for the Reynolds number dependence of the dimensionless dissipation rate in freely decaying homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the absence of a mean magnetic field is derived from the real-space energy balance equation, leading to $C_{\varepsilon}=C_{\varepsilon, \infty}+C/R_- +O(1/R_-^2))$, where $R_-$ is a generalized Reynolds number. The constant $C_{\varepsilon, \infty}$ describes the total energy transfer flux. This flux depends on magnetic and cross helicities, because these affect the nonlinear transfer of energy, suggesting that the value of $C_{\varepsilon,\infty}$ is not universal. Direct numerical simulations were conducted on up to $2048^3$ grid points, showing good agreement between data and the model. The model suggests that the magnitude of cosmological-scale magnetic fields is controlled by the values of the vector field correlations. The ideas introduced here can be used to derive similar model equations for other turbulent systems.

Didam Duniya, Daniele Bertacca, Roy Maartens

The observed galaxy power spectrum acquires relativistic corrections from lightcone effects, and these corrections grow on very large scales. Future galaxy surveys in optical, infrared and radio bands will probe increasingly large wavelength modes and reach higher redshifts. In order to exploit the new data on large scales, an accurate analysis requires inclusion of the relativistic effects. This is especially the case for primordial non-Gaussianity and for extending tests of dark energy models to horizon scales. Here we investigate the latter, focusing on models where the dark energy interacts non-gravitationally with dark matter. Interaction in the dark sector can also lead to large-scale deviations in the power spectrum. If the relativistic effects are ignored, the imprint of interacting dark energy will be incorrectly identified and thus lead to a bias in constraints on interacting dark energy on very large scales.

Theo Le Bret, Andrew Pontzen, Andrew P. Cooper,

We establish a controlled comparison between the properties of galactic stellar halos obtained with hydrodynamical simulations and with `particle tagging'. Tagging is a fast way to obtain stellar population dynamics: instead of tracking gas and star formation, it `paints' stars directly onto a suitably defined subset of dark matter particles in a collisionless, dark-matter-only simulation.Our study shows that there are conditions under which particle tagging generates good fits to the hydrodynamical stellar density profiles of a central Milky-Way-like galaxy and its most prominent substructure. Phase-space diffusion processes are crucial to reshaping the distribution of stars in infalling spheroidal systems and hence the final stellar halo. We conclude that the success of any particular tagging scheme hinges on this diffusion being taken into account, at a minimum by making use of `live' tagging schemes, in which particles are regularly tagged throughout the evolution of a galaxy.

Valeri Vardanyan, Luca Amendola

Dark energy is often assumed to be composed by a single scalar field. The background cosmic expansion is not sufficient to determine whether this is true or not. We study multi-field scalar-tensor models with a general dark matter source and write the observable modified gravity parameters (effective gravitational constant and anisotropic stress) in the form of a ratio of polynomials in the Fourier wavenumber k of order 2N, where N is the number of scalar fields. By comparing these observables to real data it is in principle possible to determine the number of dark energy scalar fields coupled to gravity. We also show that there are no realistic non-trivial cases in which the order of the polynomials is reduced.

Houri Ziaeepour

Symmetries are widely used in modeling quantum systems but they do not contribute in postulates of quantum mechanics. Here we argue that logical, mathematical, and observational evidence require that symmetry should be considered as a fundamental concept in the construction of physical systems. Based on this idea, we propose a series of postulates for describing quantum systems, and establish their relation and correspondence with axioms of standard quantum mechanics. Through some examples we show that this reformulation helps better understand some of ambiguities of standard description. Nonetheless its application is not limited to explaining confusing concept and it may be a necessary step toward a consistent model of quantum cosmology and gravity.

Antonio Padilla

These lectures on the cosmological constant problem were prepared for the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. The problem itself is explained in detail, emphasising the importance of radiative instability and the need to repeatedly fine tune as we change our effective description. Weinberg's no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

P. Simon, E. Semboloni, L. van Waerbeke,

We study the correlations of the shear signal between triplets of sources in the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) to probe cosmological parameters via the matter bispectrum. In contrast to previous studies, we adopted a non-Gaussian model of the data likelihood which is supported by our simulations of the survey. We find that for state-of-the-art surveys, similar to CFHTLenS, a Gaussian likelihood analysis is a reasonable approximation, albeit small differences in the parameter constraints are already visible. For future surveys we expect that a Gaussian model becomes inaccurate. Our algorithm for a refined non-Gaussian analysis and data compression is then of great utility especially because it is not much more elaborate if simulated data are available. Applying this algorithm to the third-order correlations of shear alone in a blind analysis, we find a good agreement with the standard cosmological model: $\Sigma_8$=$\sigma_8$ $(\Omega_{\rm m}/0.27)^{0.64}$=$0.79^{+0.08}_{-0.11}$ for a flat $\Lambda\rm CDM$ cosmology with $h=0.7\pm0.04$ ($68\%$ credible interval). Nevertheless our models provide only moderately good fits as indicated by $\chi^2/{\rm dof}=2.9$, including a $20\%$ r.m.s. uncertainty in the predicted signal amplitude. The models cannot explain a signal drop on scales around 15 arcmin, which may be caused by systematics. It is unclear whether the discrepancy can be fully explained by residual PSF systematics of which we find evidence at least on scales of a few arcmin. Therefore we need a better understanding of higher-order correlations of cosmic shear and their systematics to confidently apply them as cosmological probes.

Jeremy Sakstein

Chameleon and similar (symmetron and dilation) theories of gravity can exhibit new and interesting features on cosmological scales whilst screening the modifications on small scales thereby satisfying solar system tests of general relativity. This thesis explores the regime between these two scales: astrophysics. The majority of this thesis is focused on discerning new and novel astrophysical probes of chameleon gravity in the form of stellar structure and oscillation tests. These are used to place new constraints on the theory parameters and the implications of these are discussed, as are the future prospects for improving them using planned future surveys. The final two chapters review supersymmetric completions of these theories.

Houri Ziaeepour

Coherent states consist of superposition of infinite number of particles and do not have a classical analogue. We study their evolution in a FLRW cosmology and show that only when full quantum corrections are considered, they may survive the expansion of the Universe and form a global condensate. This state of matter can be the origin of accelerating expansion of the Universe, generally called dark energy, and inflation in the early universe. Additionally, such a quantum pool may be the ultimate environment for decoherence at shorter distances. If dark energy is a quantum coherent state, its dominant contribution to the total energy of the Universe at present provides a low entropy state which may be necessary as an initial condition for a new Big Bang in the framework of bouncing cosmology models.

Bradley J. Kavanagh

Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments which are directionally-sensitive may be the only method of probing the full velocity distribution function (VDF) of the Galactic DM halo. We present an angular basis for the DM VDF which can be used to parametrise the distribution in order to mitigate astrophysical uncertainties in future directional experiments and extract information about the DM halo. This basis consists of discretising the VDF in a series of angular bins, with the VDF being only a function of the DM speed $v$ within each bin. In contrast to other methods, such as spherical harmonic expansions, the use of this basis allows us to guarantee that the resulting VDF is everywhere positive and therefore physical. We present a recipe for calculating the event rates corresponding to the discrete VDF for an arbitrary number of angular bins $N$ and investigate the discretisation error which is introduced in this way. For smooth, Standard Halo Model-like distribution functions, only $N=3$ angular bins are required to achieve an accuracy of around $10-30\%$ in the number of events in each bin. Shortly after confirmation of the DM origin of the signal with around 50 events, this accuracy should be sufficient to allow the discretised velocity distribution to be employed reliably. For more extreme VDFs (such as streams), the discretisation error is typically much larger, but can be improved with increasing $N$. This method paves the way towards an astrophysics-independent analysis framework for the directional detection of dark matter.

Christian G. Boehmer, Nicola Tamanini, Matthew Wright

We consider an original variational approach for building new models of quintessence interacting with dark or baryonic matter. The coupling is introduced at the Lagrangian level using a variational formulation for relativistic fluids, where the interacting term generally depends on both the dynamical degrees of freedom of the theory and their spacetime derivatives. After deriving the field equations from the action, we consider applications in the context of cosmology. Two simple models are studied using dynamical system techniques showing the interesting phenomenology arising in this framework. We find that these models contain dark energy dominated late time attractors with early time matter dominated epochs and also obtain a possible dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier. The formulation and results presented here complete and expand the analysis exposed in the first part of this work, where only algebraic couplings, without spacetime derivatives, were considered.

Henrik Nersisyan, Yashar Akrami, Luca Amendola

Massive bigravity models are interesting alternatives to standard cosmology. In most cases however these models have been studied for a simplified scenario in which both metrics take homogeneous and isotropic forms (Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker; FLRW) with the same spatial curvatures. The interest to consider more general geometries arises in particular in view of the difficulty so far encountered in building stable cosmological solutions with homogeneous and isotropic metrics. Here we consider a number of cases in which the two metrics take more general forms, namely FLRW with different spatial curvatures, Lema\^{i}tre, Lema\^{i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB), and Bianchi I, as well as cases where only one metric is linearly perturbed. We discuss possible consistent combinations and find that only some special cases of FLRW-Lema\^{i}tre, LTB-LTB and FLRW-Bianchi I combinations give consistent, non-trivial solutions.

Clare Burrage, David Parkinson, David Seery

In 'modified' gravity the observed acceleration of the universe is explained by changing the gravitational force law or the number of degrees of freedom in the gravitational sector. Both possibilities can be tested by measurements of cosmological structure formation. In this paper we elaborate the details of such tests using the Galileon model as a case study. We pay attention to the possibility that each new degree of freedom may have stochastically independent initial conditions, generating different types of potential well in the early universe and breaking complete correlation between density and velocity power spectra. This 'stochastic bias' can confuse schemes to parametrize the predictions of modified gravity models, such as the use of the growth parameter f alone. Using data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey we show that it will be possible to obtain constraints using information about the cosmological-scale force law embedded in the multipole power spectra of redshift-space distortions. As an example, we obtain an upper limit on the strength of the conformal coupling to matter in the cubic Galileon model, giving

Gert Aarts, Chris Allton, Simon Hands,

It is expected that nucleons and their parity partners become degenerate when chiral symmetry is restored. We investigate this question in the context of the thermal transition from the hadronic phase to the quark-gluon plasma, using lattice QCD simulations with N_f=2+1 flavours. We observe a clear sign of parity doubling in the quark-gluon plasma. Besides, we find that the nucleon ground state is, within the uncertainty, largely independent of the temperature, whereas temperature effects are substantial in the negative-parity (N^*) channel, already in the confined phase.

Jean Alexandre

Assuming a double-well bare potential for a self-interacting scalar field, with the Higgs vacuum expectation value, it is shown that non-perturbative quantum corrections naturally lead to ultra-light particles of mass $\simeq10^{-23}$eV, if these non-perturbative effects occur at a time consistent with the Electroweak phase transition. This mechanism could be relevant in the context of Bose Einstein Condensate studies for the description of cold Dark Matter. Given the numerical consistency with the Electroweak transition, an interaction potential for Higgs and Dark Matter fields is proposed, where spontaneous symmetry breaking for the Higgs field leads to the generation of ultra-light particles, in addition to the usual Higgs mechanism. This model also naturally leads to extremely weak interactions between the Higgs and Dark Matter particles.

Mafalda Dias, Jonathan Frazer, David Seery

We describe how to apply the transport method to compute inflationary observables in a broad range of multiple-field models. The method is efficient and encompasses scenarios with curved field-space metrics, violations of slow-roll conditions and turns of the trajectory in field space. It can be used for an arbitrary mass spectrum, including massive modes and models with quasi-single-field dynamics. In this note we focus on practical issues. It is accompanied by a Mathematica code which can be used to explore suitable models, or as a basis for further development.

Victor E. Ambrus, Elizabeth Winstanley

We study rotating thermal states of a massless quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.

Irene Milillo, Daniele Bertacca, Marco Bruni, Andrea Maselli

We present a nonlinear post-Friedmann framework for structure formation, generalizing to cosmology the weak-field (post-Minkowskian) approximation, unifying the treatment of small and large scales. We consider a universe filled with a pressureless fluid and a cosmological constant $\Lambda$, the theory of gravity is Einstein's general relativity and the background is the standard flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. We expand the metric and the energy-momentum tensor in powers of $1/c$, keeping the matter density and peculiar velocity as exact fundamental variables. We assume the Poisson gauge, including scalar and tensor modes up to $1/c^4$ order and vector modes up to $1/c^5$ terms. Through a redefinition of the scalar potentials as a resummation of the metric contributions at different orders, we obtain a complete set of nonlinear equations, providing a unified framework to study structure formation from small to superhorizon scales, from the nonlinear Newtonian to the linear relativistic regime. We explicitly show the validity of our scheme in the two limits: at leading order we recover the fully nonlinear equations of Newtonian cosmology; when linearized, our equations become those for scalar and vector modes of first-order relativistic perturbation theory in the Poisson gauge. Tensor modes are nondynamical at the $1/c^4$ order we consider: they are purely nonlinear and describe a distortion of the spatial slices determined at this order by a constraint, quadratic in the scalar and vector variables. The main results of our analysis are as follows: (a) at leading order a purely Newtonian nonlinear energy current sources a frame-dragging gravitomagnetic vector potential, and (b) in the leading-order Newtonian regime and in the linear relativistic regime the two scalar metric potentials are the same, while the nonlinearity of general relativity makes them different.

Maria Vittoria Gargiulo, Mairi Sakellariadou, Giuseppe Vitiello

In this report we show that neutrino mixing is intrinsically contained in Connes' noncommutative spectral geometry construction, thanks to the introduction of the doubling of algebra, which is connected to the Bogoliubov transformation. It is known indeed that these transformations are responsible for the mixing, turning the mass vacuum state into the flavor vacuum state, in such a way that mass and flavor vacuum states are not unitary equivalent. There is thus a red thread that binds the doubling of algebra of Connes' model to the neutrino mixing.

Gert Aarts

Some recent developments to handle the numerical sign problem in QCD and related theories at nonzero density are reviewed. In this contribution I focus on changing the integration order to soften the severity of the sign problem, the density of states, and the extension into the complex plane (complex Langevin dynamics and Lefshetz thimbles).

Amir Aghamousa, Arman Shafieloo

We present a novel approach to test the consistency of the cosmological models with multiband CMB data using a nonparametric approach. In our analysis we calibrate the REACT (Risk Estimation and Adaptation after Coordinate Transformation) confidence levels associated with distances in function space (\textit{confidence distances}) based on the Monte Carlo simulations in order to test the consistency of an assumed cosmological model with observation. To show the applicability of our algorithm, we confront Planck 2013 temperature data with concordance model of cosmology considering two different Planck spectra combination. In order to have an accurate quantitative statistical measure to compare between the data and the theoretical expectations, we calibrate REACT confidence distances and perform a bias control using many realizations of the data. Our results in this work using Planck 2013 temperature data put the best fit $\Lambda$CDM model at $95\% (\sim 2\sigma)$ confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set while repeating the analysis excluding the Planck $217 \times 217$ GHz spectrum data, the best fit $\Lambda$CDM model shifts to $70\% (\sim 1\sigma)$ confidence distance. The most prominent features in the data deviating from the best fit $\Lambda$CDM model seems to be at low multipoles $ 18 < \ell < 26$ at greater than $2\sigma$, $\ell \sim 750$ at $\sim1$ to $2 \sigma$ and $\ell \sim 1800$ at greater than $2\sigma$ level. Excluding the $217\times217$ GHz spectrum the feature at $\ell \sim 1800$ becomes substantially less significance at $\sim1$ to $2 \sigma$ confidence level. Results of our analysis based on the new approach we propose in this work are in agreement with other analysis done using alternative methods.

Kendrick M. Smith, Leonardo Senatore, Matias Zaldarriaga

We develop a general framework for data analysis and phenomenology of the CMB four-point function or trispectrum. To lowest order in the derivative expansion, the inflationary action admits three quartic operators consistent with symmetry: $\dot\sigma^4$, $\dot\sigma^2 (\partial\sigma^2)$, and $(\partial\sigma)^4$. In single field inflation, only the first of these operators can be the leading non-Gaussian signal. A Fisher matrix analysis shows that there is one near-degeneracy among the three CMB trispectra, so we parameterize the trispectrum with two coefficients $g_{NL}^{\dot\sigma^4}$ and $g_{NL}^{(\partial\sigma)^4}$, in addition to the coefficient $g_{NL}^{\rm loc}$ of $\zeta^3$-type local non-Gaussianity. This three-parameter space is analogous to the parameter space $(f_{NL}^{\rm loc}, f_{NL}^{\rm equil}, f_{NL}^{\rm orth})$ commonly used to parameterize the CMB three-point function. We next turn to data analysis and show how to represent these trispectra in a factorizable form which leads to computationally fast operations such as evaluating a CMB estimator or simulating a non-Gaussian CMB. We discuss practical issues in CMB analysis pipelines, and perform an optimal analysis of WMAP data. Our minimum-variance estimates are $g_{NL}^{\rm loc} = (-3.80 \pm 2.19) \times 10^5$, $g_{NL}^{\dot\sigma^4} = (-3.20 \pm 3.09) \times 10^6$, and $g_{NL}^{(\partial\sigma)^4} = (-10.8 \pm 6.33) \times 10^5$ after correcting for the effects of CMB lensing. No evidence of a nonzero inflationary four-point function is seen.

Johanna Erdmenger, Benedikt Herwerth, Steffen Klug,

Within gauge/gravity duality, we consider finite density systems in a helical lattice dual to asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times with Bianchi VII symmetry. These systems can become an anisotropic insulator in one direction while retaining metallic behavior in others. To this model, we add a $U(1)$ charged scalar and show that below a critical temperature, it forms a spatially homogeneous condensate that restores isotropy in a new superconducting ground state. We determine the phase diagram in terms of the helix parameters and perform a stability analysis on its IR fixed point corresponding to a finite density condensed phase at zero temperature. Moreover, by analyzing fluctuations about the gravity background, we study the optical conductivity. Due to the lattice, this model provides an example for a holographic insulator-superfluid transition in which there is no unrealistic delta-function peak in the normal phase DC conductivity. Our results suggest that in the zero temperature limit, all degrees of freedom present in the normal phase condense. This, together with the breaking of translation invariance, has implications for Homes' and Uemuras's relations. This is of relevance for applications to real world condensed matter systems. We find a range of parameters in this system where Homes' relation holds.

Joao G. Rosa

We show that the magnetic dipole and gravitational radiation emitted by a pulsar can undergo superradiant scattering off a spinning black hole companion. We find that the relative amount of superradiant modes in the radiation depends on the pulsar's angular position relative to the black hole's equatorial plane. In particular, when the pulsar and black hole spins are aligned, superradiant modes are dominant at large angles, leading to an amplification of the pulsar's luminosity, whereas for small angles the radiation is dominantly composed of non-superradiant modes and the signal is attenuated. This results in a characteristic orbital modulation of the pulsar's luminosity, up to the percent level within our approximations, which may potentially yield a signature of superradiant scattering in astrophysical black holes and hence an important test of general relativity.

J. Erik Baxter, Elizabeth Winstanley

We investigate the stability of spherically symmetric, purely magnetic, soliton and black hole solutions of four-dimensional ${\mathfrak {su}}(N)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant $\Lambda $. These solutions are described by $N-1$ magnetic gauge field functions $\omega _{j}$. We consider linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations of these solutions. The perturbations decouple into two sectors, known as the sphaleronic and gravitational sectors. For any $N$, there are no instabilities in the sphaleronic sector if all the magnetic gauge field functions $\omega _{j}$ have no zeros, and satisfy a set of $N-1$ inequalities. In the gravitational sector, we are able to prove that there are solutions which have no instabilities in a neighbourhood of stable embedded ${\mathfrak {su}}(2)$ solutions, provided the magnitude of the cosmological constant $\left

Emanuele Berti, Enrico Barausse, Vitor Cardoso,

One century after its formulation, Einstein's general relativity has made remarkable predictions and turned out to be compatible with all experimental tests. Most (if not all) of these tests probe the theory in the weak-field regime, and there are theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that general relativity should be modified when gravitational fields are strong and spacetime curvature is large. The best astrophysical laboratories to probe strong-field gravity are black holes and neutron stars, whether isolated or in binary systems. We review the motivations to consider extensions of general relativity. We present a (necessarily incomplete) catalog of modified theories of gravity for which strong-field predictions have been computed and contrasted to Einstein's theory, and we summarize our current understanding of the structure and dynamics of compact objects in these theories. We discuss current bounds on modified gravity from binary pulsar and cosmological observations, and we highlight the potential of future gravitational wave measurements to inform us on the behavior of gravity in the strong-field regime.

Christian G. Boehmer, Nicola Tamanini, Matthew Wright

We present a new approach to build models of quintessence interacting with dark or baryonic matter. We use a variational approach for relativistic fluids to realize an effective description of matter fields at the Lagrangian level. The coupling is introduced directly in the action by considering a single function mixing the dynamical degrees of freedom of the theory. The resulting gravitational field equations are derived by variations with respect to the independent variables. New interesting phenomenology can be obtained at both small scales, where new screening mechanisms for scalar fields can be realized, and large scales, where one finds an original and rich class of interacting quintessence models. The background cosmology of two of these models is studied in detail using dynamical system techniques. We find a variety of interesting results: for instance, these models contain dark energy dominated late time attractors and scaling solutions, both with early time matter dominated epochs and a possible inflationary origin. In general this new approach provides the starting point for future in depth studies on new interacting quintessence models.

Takeshi Kobayashi, Marina Cortês, Andrew R. Liddle

We provide a unified description of the hemispherical asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background generated by the mechanism proposed by Erickcek, Kamionkowski, and Carroll, using a delta N formalism that consistently accounts for the asymmetry-generating mode throughout. We derive a general form for the power spectrum which explicitly exhibits the broken translational invariance. This can be directly compared to cosmic microwave background observables, including the observed quadrupole and fNL values, automatically incorporating the Grishchuk--Zel'dovich effect. Our calculation unifies and extends previous calculations in the literature, in particular giving the full dependence of observables on the phase of our location in the super-horizon mode that generates the asymmetry. We demonstrate how the apparently different results obtained by previous authors arise as different limiting cases. We confirm the existence of non-linear contributions to the microwave background quadrupole from the super-horizon mode identified by Erickcek et al. and further explored by Kanno et al., and show that those contributions are always significant in parameter regimes capable of explaining the observed asymmetry. We indicate example parameter values capable of explaining the observed power asymmetry without violating other observational bounds.

Mar Bastero-Gil, Rafael Cerezo, Joao G. Rosa

We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field-dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

Benedetta Ciardi, Susumu Inoue, Katherine J. Mack,

An alternative to both the tomography technique and the power spectrum approach is to search for the 21cm forest, that is the 21cm absorption features against high-z radio loud sources caused by the intervening cold neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) and collapsed structures. Although the existence of high-z radio loud sources has not been confirmed yet, SKA-low would be the instrument of choice to find such sources as they are expected to have spectra steeper than their lower-z counterparts. Since the strongest absorption features arise from small scale structures (few tens of physical kpc, or even lower), the 21cm forest can probe the HI density power spectrum on small scales not amenable to measurements by any other means. Also, it can be a unique probe of the heating process and the thermal history of the early universe, as the signal is strongly dependent on the IGM temperature. Here we show what SKA1-low could do in terms of detecting the 21cm forest in the redshift range z = 7.5-15.

Martin Bucher

Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), especially of its frequency spectrum and its anisotropies, both in temperature and in polarization, have played a key role in the development of modern cosmology and our understanding of the very early universe. We review the underlying physics of the CMB and how the primordial temperature and polarization anisotropies were imprinted. Possibilities for distinguishing competing cosmological models are emphasized. The current status of CMB experiments and experimental techniques with an emphasis toward future observations, particularly in polarization, is reviewed. The physics of foreground emissions, especially of polarized dust, is discussed in detail, since this area is likely to become crucial for measurements of the B modes of the CMB polarization at ever greater sensitivity.

Philip Bull, Stefano Camera, Alvise Raccanelli,

The imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in large-scale structure can be used as a standard ruler for mapping out the cosmic expansion history, and hence for testing cosmological models. In this article we briefly describe the scientific background to the BAO technique, and forecast the potential of the Phase 1 and 2 SKA telescopes to perform BAO surveys using both galaxy catalogues and intensity mapping, assessing their competitiveness with current and future optical galaxy surveys. We find that a 25,000 sq. deg. intensity mapping survey on a Phase 1 array will preferentially constrain the radial BAO, providing a highly competitive 2% constraint on the expansion rate at z ~ 2. A 30,000 sq. deg. galaxy redshift survey on SKA2 will outperform all other planned experiments for z < 1.4.

Roy Maartens, Filipe B. Abdalla, Matt Jarvis,

The new frontier of cosmology will be led by three-dimensional surveys of the large-scale structure of the Universe. Based on its all-sky surveys and redshift depth, the SKA is destined to revolutionize cosmology, in combination with future optical/ infrared surveys such as Euclid and LSST. Furthermore, we will not have to wait for the full deployment of the SKA in order to see transformational science. In the first phase of deployment (SKA1), all-sky HI intensity mapping surveys and all-sky continuum surveys are forecast to be at the forefront on the major questions of cosmology. We give a broad overview of the major contributions predicted for the SKA. The SKA will not only deliver precision cosmology -- it will also probe the foundations of the standard model and open the door to new discoveries on large-scale features of the Universe.

Filipe B. Abdalla, Philip Bull, Stefano Camera,

The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) has the potential to produce galaxy redshift surveys which will be competitive with other state of the art cosmological experiments in the next decade. In this chapter we summarise what capabilities the first and the second phases of the SKA will be able to achieve in its current state of design. We summarise the different cosmological experiments which are outlined in further detail in other chapters of this Science Book. The SKA will be able to produce competitive Baryonic Oscillation (BAOs) measurements in both its phases. The first phase of the SKA will provide similar measurements as optical and IR experiments with completely different systematic effects whereas the second phase being transformational in terms of its statistical power. The SKA will produce very accurate Redshift Space Distortions (RSD) measurements, being superior to other experiments at lower redshifts, due to the large number of galaxies. Cross correlations of the galaxy redshift data from the SKA with radio continuum surveys and optical surveys will provide extremely good calibration of photometric redshifts as well as extremely good bounds on modifications of gravity. Basing on a Principle Component Analysis (PCA) approach, we find that the SKA will be able to provide competitive constraints on dark energy and modified gravity models. Due to the large area covered the SKA it will be a transformational experiment in measuring physics from the largest scales such as non-Gaussian signals from $\textrm{f}_{\textrm{nl}}$. Finally, the SKA might produce the first real time measurement of the redshift drift. The SKA will be a transformational machine for cosmology as it grows from an early Phase 1 to its full power.

Mario G. Santos, Philip Bull, David Alonso,

HI intensity mapping (IM) is a novel technique capable of mapping the large-scale structure of the Universe in three dimensions and delivering exquisite constraints on cosmology, by using HI as a biased tracer of the dark matter density field. This is achieved by measuring the intensity of the redshifted 21cm line over the sky in a range of redshifts without the requirement to resolve individual galaxies. In this chapter, we investigate the potential of SKA1 to deliver HI intensity maps over a broad range of frequencies and a substantial fraction of the sky. By pinning down the baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion features in the matter power spectrum -- thus determining the expansion and growth history of the Universe -- these surveys can provide powerful tests of dark energy models and modifications to General Relativity. They can also be used to probe physics on extremely large scales, where precise measurements of spatial curvature and primordial non-Gaussianity can be used to test inflation; on small scales, by measuring the sum of neutrino masses; and at high redshifts where non-standard evolution models can be probed. We discuss the impact of foregrounds as well as various instrumental and survey design parameters on the achievable constraints. In particular we analyse the feasibility of using the SKA1 autocorrelations to probe the large-scale signal.

Prina Patel, Ian Harrison, Sphesihle Makhathini,

Weak gravitational lensing measurements are traditionally made at optical wavelengths where many highly resolved galaxy images are readily available. However, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) holds great promise for this type of measurement at radio wavelengths owing to its greatly increased sensitivity and resolution over typical radio surveys. The key to successful weak lensing experiments is in measuring the shapes of detected sources to high accuracy. In this document we describe a simulation pipeline designed to simulate radio images of the quality required for weak lensing, and will be typical of SKA observations. We provide as input, images with realistic galaxy shapes which are then simulated to produce images as they would have been observed with a given radio interferometer. We exploit this pipeline to investigate various stages of a weak lensing experiment in order to better understand the effects that may impact shape measurement. We first show how the proposed SKA1-Mid array configurations perform when we compare the (known) input and output ellipticities. We then investigate how making small changes to these array configurations impact on this input-outut ellipticity comparison. We also demonstrate how alternative configurations for SKA1-Mid that are smaller in extent, and with a faster survey speeds produce similar performance to those originally proposed. We then show how a notional SKA configuration performs in the same shape measurement challenge. Finally, we describe ongoing efforts to utilise our simulation pipeline to address questions relating to how applicable current (mostly originating from optical data) shape measurement techniques are to future radio surveys. As an alternative to such image plane techniques, we lastly discuss a shape measurement technique based on the shapelets formalism that reconstructs the source shapes directly from the visibility data.

M. L. Brown, D. J. Bacon, S. Camera,

We investigate the capabilities of various stages of the SKA to perform world-leading weak gravitational lensing surveys. We outline a way forward to develop the tools needed for pursuing weak lensing in the radio band. We identify the key analysis challenges and the key pathfinder experiments that will allow us to address them in the run up to the SKA. We identify and summarize the unique and potentially very powerful aspects of radio weak lensing surveys, facilitated by the SKA, that can solve major challenges in the field of weak lensing. These include the use of polarization and rotational velocity information to control intrinsic alignments, and the new area of weak lensing using intensity mapping experiments. We show how the SKA lensing surveys will both complement and enhance corresponding efforts in the optical wavebands through cross-correlation techniques and by way of extending the reach of weak lensing to high redshift.

C. Danielle Leonard, Tessa Baker, Pedro G. Ferreira

By considering linear-order departures from general relativity, we compute a novel expression for the weak lensing convergence power spectrum under alternative theories of gravity. This comprises an integral over a 'kernel' of general relativistic quantities multiplied by a theory-dependent 'source' term. The clear separation between theory-independent and -dependent terms allows for an explicit understanding of each physical effect introduced by altering the theory of gravity. We take advantage of this to explore the degeneracies between gravitational parameters in weak lensing observations.

Daniele Bertacca, Nicola Bartolo, Marco Bruni,

We discuss the question of gauge choice when analysing relativistic density perturbations at second order. We compare Newtonian and General Relativistic approaches. Some misconceptions in the recent literature are addressed. We show that the comoving-synchronous gauge is the unique gauge in General Relativity that corresponds to the Lagrangian frame and is entirely appropriate to describe the matter overdensity at second order. The comoving-synchronous gauge is the simplest gauge in which to describe Lagrangian bias at second order.

Jason N. Dossett, Mustapha Ishak, David Parkinson, Tamara M. Davis

We present constraints on testing general relativity (GR) at cosmological scales using recent data sets and assess the impact of galaxy intrinsic alignment (IA) in the CFHTLenS lensing data on those constraints. We consider CMB temperature data from Planck, the galaxy power spectrum from WiggleZ, weak lensing tomography from the CFHTLenS, ISW-galaxy cross correlations, and BAO data from 6dF, SDSS DR7, and BOSS DR9. We use a parameterization of the modified gravity (MG) that is binned in redshift and scale, a parameterization that evolves monotonically in scale but is binned in redshift, and a functional parameterization that evolves only in redshift. We present the results in terms of the MG parameters $Q$ and $\Sigma$. We employ an IA model with an amplitude $A_{CFHTLenS}$ that is included in the parameter analysis. We find an improvement in the constraints on the MG parameters corresponding to $40-53\%$ increase on the figure of merit compared to previous studies, and GR is found consistent with the data at the $95\%$ CL. The bounds found on $A_{CFHTLenS}$ are sensitive to the MG parameterization used, and the correlations between $A_{CFHTLenS}$ and MG parameters are found to be weak to moderate. For all 3 MG parameterizations $A_{\rm CFHTLenS}$ is found consistent with zero when the whole lensing sample is used, however, when using the optimized early-type galaxy sample a significantly non-zero $A_{\rm CFHTLenS}$ is found for GR and the third MG parameterization. We find that the tensions observed in previous studies persist, and there is an indication that CMB data and lensing data prefer different values for MG parameters, particularly for the parameter $\Sigma$. The analysis of the confidence contours and probability distributions suggest that the bimodality found follows that of the known tension in the $\sigma_8$ parameter. (Abridged)

C. van de Bruck, J. Morrice

Interactions between dark matter and dark energy, allowing both conformal and and disformal couplings, are studied in detail. We discuss the background evolution, anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and large scale structures. One of our main findings is that a large conformal coupling is not necessarily disallowed in the presence of a general disformal term. On the other hand, we find that negative disformal couplings very often lead to instabilities in the scalar field. Studying the background evolution and linear perturbations only, our results show that it is observationally challenging to disentangle disformal from purely conformal couplings.

Nelson A. Lima, Andrew R. Liddle, Martin Sahlén, David Parkinson

In this work we model the quintessence potential in a Taylor series expansion, up to second order, around the present-day value of the scalar field. The field is evolved in a thawing regime assuming zero initial velocity. We use the latest data from the Planck satellite, baryonic acoustic oscillations observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and Supernovae luminosity distance information from Union$2.1$ to constrain our models parameters, and also include perturbation growth data from WiggleZ. We show explicitly that the growth data does not perform as well as the other datasets in constraining the dark energy parameters we introduce. We also show that the constraints we obtain for our model parameters, when compared to previous works of nearly a decade ago, have not improved significantly. This is indicative of how little dark energy constraints, overall, have improved in the last decade, even when we add new growth of structure data to previous existent types of data.

Mark D. Roberts

It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\ell=\beta^2\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\beta=3.8\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

António Cardoso, João L. Cordovil, José R. Croca

In this paper we show that interaction-free measurements, which have been object of much discussion in the last few decades, can be explained in a natural and intuitive way in the framework of complex nonlinear quantum physics, contrary to what is claimed by some orthodox authors that present them as incomprehensible, mind-boggling experiments.

Ana Avilez-Lopez, Antonio Padilla, Paul M. Saffin, Constantinos Skordis

Light degrees of freedom that modify gravity on cosmological scales must be "screened" on solar system scales in order to be compatible with data. The Vainshtein mechanism achieves this through a breakdown of classical perturbation theory, as large interactions involving new degrees of freedom become important below the so-called Vainshtein radius. We begin to develop an extension of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism that is able to handle Vainshteinian corrections. We argue that theories with a unique Vainshtein scale must be expanded using two small parameters. In this Parameterized Post-Newtonian-Vainshteinian (PPNV) expansion, the primary expansion parameter that controls the PPN order is, as usual, the velocity $v$. The secondary expansion parameter, $\alpha$, controls the strength of the Vainshteinian correction and is a theory-specific combination of the Schwarzschild radius and the Vainshtein radius of the source that is independent of its mass. We present the general framework and apply it to Cubic Galileon theory both inside and outside the Vainshtein radius. The PPNV framework can be used to determine the compatibility of such theories with solar system and other strong-field data.

Jean Alexandre, Carl M. Bender

Two Non-Hermitian fermion models are proposed and analyzed by using Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. One model has Lorentz symmetry breaking and the other has a non-Hermitian mass term. It is shown that each model has real energies in a given region of parameter space, where they have a locally conserved current.

Manda Banerji, S. Alaghband-Zadeh, Paul C. Hewett, Richard G. McMahon

We present a new population of z>2 dust-reddened, Type 1 quasars with 0.5<E(B-V)<1.5, selected using near infra-red (NIR) imaging data from the UKIDSS-LAS, ESO-VHS and WISE surveys. NIR spectra obtained using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) for 24 new objects bring our total sample of spectroscopically confirmed hyperluminous (>10^{13}L_0), high-redshift dusty quasars to 38. There is no evidence for reddened quasars having significantly different H$\alpha$ equivalent widths relative to unobscured quasars. The average black-hole masses (~10^9-10^10 M_0) and bolometric luminosities (~10^{47} erg/s) are comparable to the most luminous unobscured quasars at the same redshift, but with a tail extending to very high luminosities of ~10^{48} erg/s. Sixty-six per cent of the reddened quasars are detected at $>3\sigma$ at 22um by WISE. The average 6um rest-frame luminosity is log10(L6um/erg/s)=47.1+/-0.4, making the objects among the mid-infrared brightest AGN currently known. The extinction-corrected space-density estimate now extends over three magnitudes (-30 < M_i < -27) and demonstrates that the reddened quasar luminosity function is significantly flatter than that of the unobscured quasar population at z=2-3. At the brightest magnitudes, M_i < -29, the space density of our dust-reddened population exceeds that of unobscured quasars. A model where the probability that a quasar becomes dust-reddened increases at high luminosity is consistent with the observations and such a dependence could be explained by an increase in luminosity and extinction during AGN-fuelling phases. The properties of our obscured Type 1 quasars are distinct from the heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN that have been identified at much fainter luminosities and we conclude that they likely correspond to a brief evolutionary phase in massive galaxy formation.

Daniel B. Thomas, Marco Bruni, David Wands

Newtonian simulations are routinely used to examine the matter dynamics on non-linear scales. However, even on these scales, Newtonian gravity is not a complete description of gravitational effects. A post-Friedmann approach shows that the leading order correction to Newtonian theory is the existence of a vector potential in the metric. This vector potential can be calculated from N-body simulations, requiring a method for extracting the velocity field. Here, we present the full details of our calculation of the post-Friedmann vector potential, using the Delauney Tesselation Field Estimator (DTFE) code. We include a detailed examination of the robustness of our numerical result, including the effects of box size and mass resolution on the extracted fields. We present the power spectrum of the vector potential and find that the power spectrum of the vector potential is $\sim 10^5$ times smaller than the power spectrum of the fully non-linear scalar gravitational potential at redshift zero. Comparing our numerical results to perturbative estimates, we find that the fully non-linear result can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the perturbative estimate on small scales. We extend the analysis of the vector potential to multiple redshifts, showing that this ratio persists over a range of scales and redshifts. We also comment on the implications of our results for the validity and interpretation of Newtonian simulations.

Jon-Ivar Skullerud, Gert Aarts, Chris Allton,

The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N_f=2+1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.

Mark D. Roberts

A solution to the massless scalar cosmological constant field equations is presented. The solution has imploding scalar and parts of anti-deSitter or deSitter spacetime as limiting cases. Some of the solutions properties are discussed however not much can be said because of the contrasting properties of imploding scalar and deSitter spacetimes.

Roberto A. Sussman, Juan Carlos Hidalgo, Peter K. S. Dunsby, Gabriel German

We examine the relation between the dynamics of Lema\^{\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models (with and without $\Lambda$) and the dynamics of dust perturbations in two of the more familiar formalisms used in cosmology: the metric based Cosmological Perturbation Theory (CPT) and the Covariant Gauge Invariant (GIC) perturbations. For this purpose we recast the evolution of LTB models in terms of a covariant and gauge invariant formalism of local and non-local "exact fluctuations " on a Friedmann-Lema\^{\i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background defined by suitable averages of covariant scalars. We examine the properties of these fluctuations, which can be defined for a confined comoving domain or for an asymptotic domain extending to whole time slices. In particular, the non-local density fluctuation provides a covariant and precise definition for the notion of the "density contrast ". We show that in their linear regime these LTB exact fluctuations (local and non-local) are fully equivalent to the conventional cosmological perturbations in the synchronous-comoving gauge of CPT and to GIC perturbations. As an immediate consequence, we show the time-invariance of the spatial curvature perturbation in a simple form. The present work may provide important theoretical connections between the exact and perturbative (linear or no-linear) approach to the dynamics of dust sources in General Relativity.

David Kraljic, Subir Sarkar

The Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) is well-known as providing visual evidence of dark matter but it is potentially incompatible with the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology due to the high relative velocity of the two colliding clusters. Previous studies have focussed on the probability of such a high relative velocity amongst selected candidate systems. This notion of `probability' is however difficult to interpret and can lead to paradoxical results. Instead, we consider the expected number of Bullet-like systems on the sky up to a specified redshift, which allows for direct comparison with observations. Using a Hubble volume N-body simulation with high resolution we investigate how the number of such systems depends on the masses of the halo pairs, their separation, and collisional angle. This enables us to extract an approximate formula for the expected number of halo-halo collisions given specific collisional parameters. We use extreme value statistics to analyse the tail of the pairwise velocity distribution and demonstrate that it is fatter than the previously assumed Gaussian form. We estimate that the number of dark matter halo pairs as or more extreme than 1E0657-56 in mass, separation and relative velocity is $1.3^{+2.0}_{-0.6}$ up to redshift $z=0.3$. However requiring the halos to have collided and passed through each other as is observed decreases this number to only 0.1. The discovery of more such systems would thus indeed present a challenge to the standard cosmology.

David Bailin, Alex Love

We revisit the question of gauge coupling unification at the string scale in orbifold compactifications of the heterotic string for the supersymmetric Standard Model. In the presence of discrete Wilson lines threshold corrections with modular symmetry that is a subgroup of the full modular group arise. We find that reduced modular symmetries not previously reported are possible. We conjecture that the effects of such threshold corrections can be simulated using sums of terms built from Dedekind eta functions to obtain the appropriate modular symmetry. For the cases of the Z_8-I orbifold and the Z_3 x Z_6 orbifold it is easily possible to obtain gauge coupling unification at the "observed" scale with Kahler moduli T of approximately one.

M. de Cesare, Nick E. Mavromatos, Sarben Sarkar

The effect of torsion in theories of quantum gravity is known to be well described by an axion-like field which couples to matter as well as to gravitation and radiation gauge fields. In this note we consider a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field that appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. We investigate the implications for leptogenesis. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree-level and with only one generation of right-handed Majorana neutrinos, due to CP and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry.

Nick E. Mavromatos

We review work on the formation of gravitino condensates via the super-Higgs effect in the early Universe. This is a scenario for both inflating the early universe and breaking local supersymmetry (supergravity), entirely independent of any coupling to external matter. The goldstino mode associated with the breaking of (global) supersymmetry is "eaten" by the gravitino field, which becomes massive (via its own vacuum condensation) and breaks the local supersymmetry (supergravity) dynamically. The most natural association of gravitino condensates with inflation proceeds in an indirect way, via a Starobinsky-inflation-type phase. The higher-order curvature corrections of the (quantum) effective action of gravitino condensates induced by integrating out massive gravitino degrees of freedom in a curved space-time background, in the broken-supergravity phase, are responsible for inducing a scalar mode which inflates the Universe. The scenario is in agreement with Planck data phenomenology in a natural and phenomenologically-relevant range of parameters, namely Grand-Unified-Theory values for the supersymmetry breaking energy scale and dynamically-induced gravitino mass.

Gert Aarts, Chris Allton, Alessandro Amato,

We present a lattice QCD calculation of the charge diffusion coefficient, the electrical conductivity and various susceptibilities of conserved charges, for a range of temperatures below and above the deconfinement crossover. The calculations include the contributions from up, down and strange quarks. We find that the diffusion coefficient is of the order of 1/(2\pi T) and has a dip around the crossover temperature. Our results are obtained with lattice simulations containing 2+1 dynamical flavours on anisotropic lattices. The Maximum Entropy Method is used to construct spectral functions from correlators of the conserved vector current.

Clare Burrage, Edmund J. Copeland, James Stevenson

The chameleon mechanism enables a long range fifth force to be screened in dense environments when non-trivial self interactions of the field cause its mass to increase with the local density. To date, chameleon fifth forces have mainly been studied for spherically symmetric sources, however the non-linear self interactions mean that the chameleon responds to changes in the shape of the source differently to gravity. In this work we focus on ellipsoidal departures from spherical symmetry and compute the full form of the chameleon force, comparing it's shape dependence to that of gravity. Enhancement of the chameleon force by up to 40% is possible when deforming a sphere to an ellipsoid of the same mass, with an ellipticity $\simeq 0.99$.

J. R. Fergusson, H. F. Gruetjen, E. P. S. Shellard, B. Wallisch

We undertake a thorough search for signatures of sharp oscillatory features in the WMAP9 power spectrum and bispectrum as well as in the Planck power spectrum. For the first time, we carry out searches in both the power spectrum and bispectrum simultaneously, employing well-defined look-elsewhere statistics to assess significances in a rigorous manner. Developing efficient methods to scan power spectrum likelihoods for oscillatory features, we present results for the phenomenological bare sine and cosine modulations, allowing validation against existing Planck Likelihood surveys, as well as templates that include the correct sharp feature scaling. In particular, we study degeneracies between feature and cosmological parameters. For frequencies beyond the scale set by the acoustic peaks, the dependencies are realised through uninteresting adjustments of the comoving distance to last scattering. Hence, it is sufficient to keep cosmological parameters fixed and employ fast Gaussian approximations to the likelihood as a function of the feature model amplitude. In cases where results can be compared to the literature, our method shows excellent agreement. We supplement results from the Planck Likelihood with an analysis based on the Planck SMICA component separation map that, working on the assumption that the component separation algorithm is reliable, allows for the inclusion of a larger sky fraction. In principle, this allows us to place the most stringent constraints to date on the amplitudes of feature models in the temperature power spectrum. Invoking the WMAP bispectrum, we perform a combined power spectrum and bispectrum survey. We use and slightly generalise statistics developed in previous work to reliably judge the significance of large feature model amplitude estimates. We conclude that our results are entirely consistent with a featureless realisation of a Gaussian CMB.

Robert Hogan, Malcolm Fairbairn, Navin Seeburn

We present a new approach to the problem of estimating the redshift of galaxies from photometric data. The approach uses a genetic algorithm combined with non-linear regression to model the 2SLAQ LRG data set with SDSS DR7 photometry. The genetic algorithm explores the very large space of high order polynomials while only requiring optimisation of a small number of terms. We find a $\sigma_{\text{rms}}=0.0408\pm 0.0006$ for redshifts in the range $0.4<z< 0.7$. These results are competitive with the current state-of-the-art but can be presented simply as a polynomial which does not require the user to run any code. We demonstrate that the method generalises well to other data sets and redshift ranges by testing it on SDSS DR11 and on simulated data. For other datasets or applications the code has been made available at https://github.com/rbrthogan/GAz.

Kari Enqvist, David J. Mulryne, Sami Nurmi

We discuss correlations among spectral observables as a new tool for differentiating between models for the primordial perturbation. We show that if generated in the isocurvature sector, a running of the scalar spectral index is correlated with the statistical properties of non-Gaussianities. In particular, we find a large running will inevitably be accompanied by a large running of $f_{\rm NL}$ and enhanced $g_{\rm NL}$, with $g_{\rm NL}\gg f_{\rm NL}^2$. If the tensor to scalar ratio is large, a large negative running must turn positive on smaller scales. Interestingly, the characteristic scale of the transition could potentially distinguish between the inflaton and isocurvature fields.

Gert Aarts, Benjamin Jäger, Erhard Seiler,

We use the heavy dense formulation of QCD (HD-QCD) as the basis for an analytic expansion as systematic approximation to QCD at non-zero density, keeping the full Yang-Mills action. We analyse the structure of the baryonic density and other quantities and present data from the complex Langevin equation (CLE) and reweighting (RW) calculations for 2 flavours of Wilson fermions.

Vincenzo Salzano, Mariusz P. Dabrowski, Ruth Lazkoz

In this letter we describe a new method to use Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) to derive a constraint on the possible variation of the speed of light. The method relies on the fact that there is a simple relation between the angular diameter distance $(D_{A})$ maximum and the Hubble function $(H)$ evaluated at the same maximum-condition redshift, which includes speed of light $c$. We note the close analogy of the BAO probe with a laboratory experiment: here we have $D_{A}$ which plays the role of a standard (cosmological) ruler, and $H^{-1}$, with the dimension of time, as a (cosmological) clock. We evaluate if current or future missions such as Euclid can be sensitive enough to detect any variation of $c$.

Sam Bartrum, Arjun Berera, Joao G. Rosa

We show that dissipative effects have a significant impact on the evolution of cosmological scalar fields, leading to friction, entropy production and field fluctuations. We explicitly compute the dissipation coefficient for different scalar fields within the Standard Model and some of its most widely considered extensions, in different parametric regimes. We describe the generic consequences of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics in the post-inflationary universe, focusing in particular on friction and particle production, and analyze in detail two important effects. Firstly, we show that dissipative friction delays the process of spontaneous symmetry breaking and may even damp the the motion of a Higgs field sufficiently to induce a late period of warm inflation. Along with dissipative entropy production, this may parametrically dilute the abundance of dangerous thermal relics. Secondly, we show that dissipation can generate the observed baryon asymmetry without symmetry restoration, and we develop in detail a model of dissipative leptogenesis. We further show that this generically leads to characteristic baryon isocurvature perturbations that can be tested with CMB observations. This work provides a fundamental framework to go beyond the leading thermal equilibrium semi-classical approximation in addressing fundamental problems in modern cosmology.

Matthew J. Dolan, Felix Kahlhoefer, Christopher McCabe, Kai Schmidt-Hoberg

Dark matter interacting via the exchange of a light pseudoscalar can induce observable signals in indirect detection experiments and experience large self-interactions while evading the strong bounds from direct dark matter searches. The pseudoscalar mediator will however induce flavour-changing interactions in the Standard Model, providing a promising alternative way to test these models. We investigate in detail the constraints arising from rare meson decays and fixed target experiments for different coupling structures between the pseudoscalar and Standard Model fermions. The resulting bounds are highly complementary to the information inferred from the dark matter relic density and the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis. We discuss the implications of our findings for the dark matter self-interaction cross section and the prospects of probing dark matter coupled to a light pseudoscalar with direct or indirect detection experiments. In particular, we find that a pseudoscalar mediator can only explain the Galactic Centre excess if its mass is above that of the B mesons, and that it is impossible to obtain a sufficiently large direct detection cross section to account for the DAMA modulation

Olivier Doré, Jamie Bock, Matthew Ashby,

SPHEREx (Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer) ( http://spherex.caltech.edu ) is a proposed all-sky spectroscopic survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's Astrophysics Division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. SPHEREx will scan a series of Linear Variable Filters systematically across the entire sky. The SPHEREx data set will contain R=40 spectra fir 0.75$<\lambda<$4.1$\mu$m and R=150 spectra for 4.1$<\lambda<$4.8$\mu$m for every 6.2 arc second pixel over the entire-sky. In this paper, we detail the extra-galactic and cosmological studies SPHEREx will enable and present detailed systematic effect evaluations. We also outline the Ice and Galaxy Evolution Investigations.

Mark Hindmarsh, Russell Kirk, Jose Miguel No, Stephen M. West

We examine the production of dark matter by decaying topological defects in the high mass region $m_{\mathrm{DM}} \gg m_W$ of the Inert Doublet Model, extended with an extra U(1) gauge symmetry. The density of dark matter states (the neutral Higgs states of the inert doublet) is determined by the interplay of the freeze-out mechanism and the additional production of dark matter states from the decays of topological defects, in this case cosmic strings. These decays increase the predicted relic abundance compared to the standard freeze-out only case, and as a consequence the viable parameter space of the Inert Doublet Model can be widened substantially. In particular, for a given dark matter annihilation rate lower dark matter masses become viable. We investigate the allowed mass range taking into account constraints on the energy injection rate from the diffuse $\gamma$-ray background and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, together with constraints on the dark matter properties coming from direct and indirect detection limits. For the Inert Doublet Model high-mass region, an inert Higgs mass as low as $\sim 200$ GeV is permitted. There is also an upper limit on string mass per unit length, and hence the symmetry breaking scale, from the relic abundance in this scenario. Depending on assumptions made about the string decays, the limits are in the range $10^{12}$ GeV to $10^{13}$ GeV.

James Bonifacio, Johannes Noller

We revisit the construction of generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models and clarify the structure of their higher order self-interactions. We explicitly construct a non-redundant expansion for these models and confirm that ghost-free (dRGT) massive gravity is the unique two-parameter family of Lorentz-invariant massive gravity theories with a strong coupling scale not lower than $\Lambda_3 =(M_P m^2)^{1/3}$. We then discuss the so-called minimal model and whether the strong coupling scale can be raised in such a setup. We find that there are always scalar-tensor interactions beyond the $\Lambda_3$ decoupling limit at a scale arbitrarily close to $\Lambda_3$, establishing that $\Lambda_3$ is effectively the maximal strong coupling scale for generic Lorentz-invariant massive gravity models, even in the absence of vector modes.

Marcelo Alvarez, Tobias Baldauf, J. Richard Bond,

The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large scale structure is however from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ ($f_{\rm NL}^{\rm eq}$), natural target levels of sensitivity are $\Delta f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc, eq.} \simeq 1$. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014.

Maxim A. Kurkov, Fedele Lizzi, Mairi Sakellariadou, Apimook Watcharangkool

In this paper we propose a novel definition of the bosonic spectral action using zeta function regularization, in order to address the issues of renormalizability and spectral dimensions. We compare the zeta spectral action with the usual (cutoff based) spectral action and discuss its origin, predictive power, stressing the importance of the issue of the three dimensionful fundamental constants, namely the cosmological constant, the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and the gravitational constant. We emphasize the fundamental role of the neutrino Majorana mass term for the structure of the bosonic action.

Sandro Ciarlariello, Robert Crittenden, Francesco Pace

We present a simple model for describing intrinsic correlations for galaxy sizes based on the halo model. Studying these correlations is important both to improve our understanding of galaxy properties and because it is an important potential systematic for weak lensing size magnification measurements. Our model assumes that the density field drives these intrinsic correlations and we also model the distribution of satellite galaxies. We calculate the possible contamination to measurements of lensing convergence power spectrum from galaxy sizes, and show that the cross-correlation of intrinsic sizes with convergence is potentially an important systematic. We also explore how these intrinsic size correlations may affect surveys with different redshift depth. We find that, in this simple approach, intrinsic size correlations cannot be neglected in order to estimate lensing convergence power spectrum for constraining cosmological parameters.

Takeshi Morita, Shotaro Shiba, Toby Wiseman, Benjamin Withers

Maximally supersymmetric (p+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory at large N and finite temperature, with possibly compact spatial directions, has a rich phase structure. Strongly coupled phases may have holographic descriptions as black branes in various string duality frames, or there may be no gravity dual. In this paper we provide tools in the gauge theory which give a simple and unified picture of the various strongly coupled phases, and transitions between them. Building on our previous work we consider the effective theory describing the moduli of the gauge theory, which can be computed precisely when it is weakly coupled far out on the Coulomb branch. Whilst for perturbation theory naive extrapolation from weak coupling to strong gives little information, for this moduli theory naive extrapolation from its weakly to its strongly coupled regime appears to encode a surprising amount of information about the various strongly coupled phases. We argue it encodes not only the parametric form of thermodynamic quantities for these strongly coupled phases, but also certain transcendental factors with a geometric origin, and allows one to deduce transitions between the phases. We emphasise it also gives predictions for the behaviour of a large class of local operators in these phases.

Roland de Putter, Olivier Doré

The most promising method for measuring primordial non-Gaussianity in the post-Planck era is to detect large-scale, scale-dependent galaxy bias. Considering the information in the galaxy power spectrum, we here derive the properties of a galaxy clustering survey that would optimize constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity using this technique. Specifically, we ask the question what survey design is needed to reach a precision $\sigma(f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}) \approx 1$. To answer this question, we calculate the sensitivity to $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ as a function of galaxy number density, redshift accuracy and sky coverage. We include the multitracer technique, which helps minimize cosmic variance noise, by considering the possibility of dividing the galaxy sample into stellar mass bins. We show that the ideal survey for $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ looks very different than most galaxy redshift surveys scheduled for the near future. Since those are more or less optimized for measuring the BAO scale, they typically require spectroscopic redshifts. On the contrary, to optimize the $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}$ measurement, a deep, wide, multi-band imaging survey is preferred. An uncertainty $\sigma(f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}) = 1$ can be reached with a full-sky survey that is complete to an $i$-band AB magnitude $i \approx 23$ and has a number density $\sim 8$ arcmin$^{-2}$. Requirements on the multi-band photometry are set by a modest photo-$z$ accuracy $\sigma(z)/(1+z) < 0.1$ and the ability to measure stellar mass with a precision $\sim 0.2$ dex or better (or another proxy for halo mass with equivalent scatter). While here we focus on the information in the power spectrum, even stronger constraints can potentially be obtained with the galaxy bispectrum.

Luca Amendola, Tiago Castro, Valerio Marra, Miguel Quartin

A recently proposed technique allows one to constrain both the background and perturbation cosmological parameters through the distribution function of supernova Ia apparent magnitudes. Here we extend this technique to alternative cosmological scenarios, in which the growth of structure does not follow the $\Lambda$CDM prescription. We apply the method first to the supernova data provided by the JLA catalog combined with all the current independent redshift distortion data and with low-redshift cluster data from Chandra and show that although the supernovae alone are not very constraining, they help in reducing the confidence regions. Then we apply our method to future data from LSST and from a survey that approximates the Euclid satellite mission. In this case we show that the combined data are nicely complementary and can constrain the normalization $\sigma_8$ and the growth rate index $\gamma$ to within $0.6\%$ and $7\%$, respectively. In particular, the LSST supernova catalog is forecast to give the constraint $\gamma (\sigma_8/0.83)^{6.7} = 0.55 \pm 0.1$. We also report on constraints relative to a step-wise parametrization of the growth rate of structures. These results show that supernova lensing serves as a good cross-check on the measurement of perturbation parameters from more standard techniques.

Amir Aghamousa, Arman Shafieloo, Mihir Arjunwadkar, Tarun Souradeep

Estimation of the angular power spectrum is one of the important steps in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis. Here, we present a nonparametric estimate of the temperature angular power spectrum for the Planck 2013 CMB data. The method implemented in this work is model-independent, and allows the data, rather than the model, to dictate the fit. Since one of the main targets of our analysis is to test the consistency of the $\Lambda$CDM model with Planck 2013 data, we use the nuisance parameters associated with the best-fit $\Lambda$CDM angular power spectrum to remove foreground contributions from the data at multipoles $\ell \geq50$. We thus obtain a combined angular power spectrum data set together with the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted over frequency channels. Our subsequent nonparametric analysis resolves six peaks (and five dips) up to $\ell \sim1850$ in the temperature angular power spectrum. We present uncertainties in the peak/dip locations and heights at the $95\%$ confidence level. We further show how these reflect the harmonicity of acoustic peaks, and can be used for acoustic scale estimation. Based on this nonparametric formalism, we found the best-fit $\Lambda$CDM model to be at $36\%$ confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set -- this is considerably larger than the confidence distance ($9\%$) derived earlier from a similar analysis of the WMAP 7-year data. Another interesting result of our analysis is that at low multipoles, the Planck data do not suggest any upturn, contrary to the expectation based on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution in the best-fit $\Lambda$CDM cosmology.

Tessa Baker, Dimitrios Psaltis, Constantinos Skordis

The current effort to test General Relativity employs multiple disparate formalisms for different observables, obscuring the relations between laboratory, astrophysical and cosmological constraints. To remedy this situation, we develop a parameter space for comparing tests of gravity on all scales in the universe. In particular, we present new methods for linking cosmological large-scale structure, the Cosmic Microwave Background and gravitational waves with classic PPN tests of gravity. Diagrams of this gravitational parameter space reveal a noticeable untested regime. The untested window, which separates small-scale systems from the troubled cosmological regime, could potentially hide the onset of corrections to General Relativity.

Adrian Vollmer, Luca Amendola, Riccardo Catena

The Time Renormalization Group (TRG) is an effective method for accurate calculations of the matter power spectrum at the scale of the first baryonic acoustic oscillations. By using a particular variable transformation in the TRG formalism, we can reduce the 2D integral in the source term of the equations of motion for the power spectrum into a series of 1D integrals. The shape of the integrand allows us to pre-compute only thirteen antiderivatives numerically, which can then be reused when evaluating the outer integral. While this introduces a few challenges to keep numerical noise under control, we find that the computation time for nonlinear corrections to the matter power spectrum decreases by a factor of 50. This opens up the possibility to use of TRG for mass production as in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. A Fortran code demonstrating this new algorithm has been made publicly available.

Brian D. Fields, Paolo Molaro, Subir Sarkar

A critical review is given of the current status of cosmological nucleosynthesis. In the framework of the Standard Model with 3 types of relativistic neutrinos, the baryon-to-photon ratio, $\eta$, corresponding to the inferred primordial abundances of deuterium and helium-4 is consistent with the independent determination of $\eta$ from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. However the primordial abundance of lithium-7 inferred from observations is significantly below its expected value. Taking systematic uncertainties in the abundance estimates into account, there is overall concordance in the range $\eta = (5.7-6.7)\times 10^{-10}$ at 95% CL (corresponding to a cosmological baryon density $\Omega_B h^2 = 0.021 - 0.025$). The D and He-4 abundances, when combined with the CMB determination of $\eta$, provide the bound $N_\nu=3.28 \pm 0.28$ on the effective number of neutrino species. Other constraints on new physics are discussed briefly.

Jason D. McEwen, Martin Büttner, Boris Leistedt,

A new spin wavelet transform on the sphere is proposed to analyse the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), a spin $\pm 2$ signal observed on the celestial sphere. The scalar directional scale-discretised wavelet transform on the sphere is extended to analyse signals of arbitrary spin. The resulting spin scale-discretised wavelet transform probes the directional intensity of spin signals. A procedure is presented using this new spin wavelet transform to recover E- and B-mode signals from partial-sky observations of CMB polarisation.

Ze Long Liu, Chong Sheng Li, Jian Wang, Yan Wang

We study the factorization and resummation prediction on the jet mass spectrum in one-jet inclusive production at the LHC based on soft-collinear effective theory. The soft function with anti-$k_T$ algorithm is calculated at next-to-leading order and its validity is demonstrated by checking the agreement between the expanded leading singular terms with the exact fixed-order result. The large logarithms $\ln^{n} (m_J^2/p_T^2)$ and the global logarithms $\ln^{n} (s_4/p_T^2)$ in the process are resummed to all order at next-to-leading logarithmic and next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic level, respectively. The cross section is enhanced by about 23% from the next-to-leading logarithmic level to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic level. Comparing our resummation predictions with those from Monte Carlo tool PYTHIA and ATLAS data at the 7 TeV LHC, we find that the peak positions of the jet mass spectra agree with those from PYTHIA at parton level, and the predictions of the jet mass spectra with non-perturbative effects are in coincidence with the ATLAS data. We also show the predictions at the future 13 TeV LHC.

Luca Amendola

The number of Italian firms in function of the number of workers is well approximated by an inverse power law up to 15 workers but shows a clear downward deflection beyond this point, both when using old pre-1999 data and when using recent (2014) data. This phenomenon could be associated with employent protection legislation which applies to companies with more than 15 workers (the Statuto dei Lavoratori). The deflection disappears for agriculture firms, for which the protection legislation applies already above 5 workers. In this note it is estimated that a correction of this deflection could bring an increase from 3.9 to 5.8% in new jobs in firms with a workforce between 5 to 25 workers.

Gert Aarts, Felipe Attanasio, Benjamin Jäger,

We summarise recent progress in simulating QCD at nonzero baryon density using complex Langevin dynamics. After a brief outline of the main idea, we discuss gauge cooling as a means to control the evolution. Subsequently we present a status report for heavy dense QCD and its phase structure, full QCD with staggered quarks, and full QCD with Wilson quarks, both directly and using the hopping parameter expansion to all orders.

Joanes Lizarraga, Jon Urrestilla, David Daverio,

In this work we discuss the possibility of cosmic defects being responsible for the B-mode signal measured by the BICEP2 collaboration. We also allow for the presence of other cosmological sources of B-modes such as inflationary gravitational waves and polarized dust foregrounds, which might contribute to or dominate the signal. On the one hand, we find that defects alone give a poor fit to the data points. On the other, we find that defects help to improve the fit at higher multipoles when they are considered alongside inflationary gravitational waves or polarized dust. Finally, we derive new defect constraints from models combining defects and dust. This proceeding is based on previous works [1,2].

J. Colin Hill, Blake D. Sherwin, Kendrick M. Smith,

We present a measurement of the one-point probability distribution function (PDF) of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) decrement in the pixel temperature histogram of filtered 148 GHz sky maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The PDF includes the signal from all galaxy clusters in the map, including objects below the signal-to-noise threshold for individual detection, making it a particularly sensitive probe of the amplitude of matter density perturbations, $\sigma_8$. We use a combination of analytic halo model calculations and numerical simulations to compute the theoretical tSZ PDF and its covariance matrix, accounting for all noise sources and including relativistic corrections. From the measured ACT 148 GHz PDF alone, we find $\sigma_8 = 0.793 \pm 0.018$, with additional systematic errors of $\pm 0.017$ due to uncertainty in intracluster medium gas physics and $\pm 0.006$ due to uncertainty in infrared point source contamination. Using effectively the same data set, the statistical error here is a factor of two lower than that found in ACT's previous $\sigma_8$ determination based solely on the skewness of the tSZ signal. In future temperature maps with higher sensitivity, the tSZ PDF will break the degeneracy between intracluster medium gas physics and cosmological parameters.

Yves Dirian, Stefano Foffa, Martin Kunz,

We study the cosmological predictions of two recently proposed non-local modifications of General Relativity. Both models have the same number of parameters as $\Lambda$CDM, with a mass parameter $m$ replacing the cosmological constant. We implement the cosmological perturbations of the non-local models into a modification of the CLASS Boltzmann code, and we make a full comparison to CMB, BAO and supernova data. We find that the non-local models fit these datasets as well as $\Lambda$CDM. For both non-local models parameter estimation using Planck+JLA+BAO data gives a value of $H_0$ higher than in $\Lambda$CDM, and in better agreement with the values obtained from local measurements.

Philippe Brax, Clare Burrage, Anne-Christine Davis, Giulia Gubitosi

We investigate the cosmological properties of Galileon models with positive kinetic terms. We include both conformal and disformal couplings to matter and focus on constraints on the theory that arise because of these couplings. The disformal coupling to baryonic matter is extremely constrained by astrophysical and particle physics effects. The disformal coupling to photons induces a cosmological variation of the speed of light and therefore distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum which are known to be very small. The conformal coupling to baryons leads to a variation of particle masses since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is also tightly constrained. We consider the background cosmology of Galileon models coupled to Cold Dark Matter (CDM), photons and baryons and impose that the speed of light and particle masses respect the observational bounds on cosmological time scales. We find that requiring that the equation of state for the Galileon models must be close to -1 now restricts severely their parameter space and can only be achieved with a combination of the conformal and disformal couplings. This leads to large variations of particle masses and the speed of light which are not compatible with observations. As a result, we find that cosmological Galileon models are viable dark energy theories coupled to dark matter but their couplings, both disformal and conformal, to baryons and photons must be heavily suppressed making them only sensitive to CDM.

Nathalie Skrzypek, Stephen J. Warren, Jacqueline K. Faherty,

Aims. We present a method, named photo-type, to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs onto the standard spectral classification system using photometry alone. This enables the creation of large and deep homogeneous samples of these objects efficiently, without the need for spectroscopy. Methods. We created a catalogue of point sources with photometry in 8 bands, ranging from 0.75 to 4.6 microns, selected from an area of 3344 deg^2, by combining SDSS, UKIDSS LAS, and WISE data. Sources with 13.0 < J < 17.5, and Y - J > 0.8, were then classified by comparison against template colours of quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. The L and T templates, spectral types L0 to T8, were created by identifying previously known sources with spectroscopic classifications, and fitting polynomial relations between colour and spectral type. Results. Of the 192 known L and T dwarfs with reliable photometry in the surveyed area and magnitude range, 189 are recovered by our selection and classification method. We have quantified the accuracy of the classification method both externally, with spectroscopy, and internally, by creating synthetic catalogues and accounting for the uncertainties. We find that, brighter than J = 17.5, photo-type classifications are accurate to one spectral sub-type, and are therefore competitive with spectroscopic classifications. The resultant catalogue of 1157 L and T dwarfs will be presented in a companion paper.

Christian T. Byrnes

We discuss how primordial non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbation helps to constrain models of the early universe. Observations are consistent with Gaussian initial conditions, compatible with the predictions of the simplest models of inflation. Deviations are constrained to be at the sub percent level, constraining alternative models such as those with multiple fields, non-canonical kinetic terms or breaking the slow-roll conditions. We introduce some of the most important models of inflation which generate non-Gaussian perturbations and provide practical tools on how to calculate the three-point correlation function for a popular class of non-Gaussian models. The current state of the field is summarised and an outlook is given.

J. Alberto Vazquez, Mariana Carrillo-Gonzalez, Gabriel German,

We study the Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) model and some of its realisations in the light of recent CMB observations, mainly Planck temperature and WMAP-9 polarization, and compare with the recent release of BICEP2 dataset. The inflationary sector of HNI is essentially given by the potential $V(\phi) = V_0(1+a\cos (\frac{\phi}{f} ) )$, where $a$ is a positive constant smaller or equal to one and $f$ is the scale of (pseudo Nambu-Goldstone) symmetry breaking. We show that to describe the HNI model realisations we only need two observables; the spectral index $n_s$, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and a free parameter in the amplitude of the cosine function $a$. We find that in order to make the HNI model compatible with the BICEP2 observations, we require a large positive running of the spectra. We find that this could over-produce primordial black holes in the most consistent case of the model. This situation could be aleviated if, as recently argued, the BICEP2 data do not correspond to primordial gravitational waves.

Rebecca Lange, Simon P. Driver, Aaron S. G. Robotham,

We use data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey in the redshift range 0.01$<$z$<$0.1 (8399 galaxies in $g$ to $K_s$ bands) to derive the stellar mass $-$ half-light radius relations for various divisions of 'early' and 'late'-type samples. We find the choice of division between early and late (i.e., colour, shape, morphology) is not particularly critical, however, the adopted mass limits and sample selections (i.e., the careful rejection of outliers and use of robust fitting methods) are important. In particular we note that for samples extending to low stellar mass limits ($<10^{10}\mathcal{M_{\odot}}$) the S\'ersic index bimodality, evident for high mass systems, becomes less distinct and no-longer acts as a reliable separator of early- and late-type systems. The final set of stellar mass $-$ half-light radius relations are reported for a variety of galaxy population subsets in 10 bands ($ugrizZYJHK_s$) and are intended to provide a comprehensive low-z benchmark for the many ongoing high-z studies. Exploring the variation of the stellar mass $-$ half-light radius relations with wavelength we confirm earlier findings that galaxies appear more compact at longer wavelengths albeit at a smaller level than previously noted: at $10^{10}\mathcal{M_{\odot}}$ both spiral systems and ellipticals show a decrease in size of 13% from $g$ to $K_s$ (which is near linear in log wavelength). Finally we note that the sizes used in this work are derived from 2D S\'ersic light profile fitting (using GALFIT3), i.e., elliptical semi-major half light radii, improving on earlier low-z benchmarks based on circular apertures.

André Coimbra, Charles Strickland-Constable, Daniel Waldram

We define intrinsic torsion in generalised geometry and use it to introduce a new notion of generalised special holonomy. We then consider generic warped supersymmetric flux compactifications of M theory and Type II of the form $\mathbb{R}^{D-1,1}\times M$. Using the language of $E_{d(d)}\times\mathbb{R}^+$ generalised geometry, we show that, for $D\geq 4$, preserving minimal supersymmetry is equivalent to the manifold $M$ having generalised special holonomy and list the relevant holonomy groups. We conjecture that this result extends to backgrounds preserving any number of supersymmetries. As a prime example, we consider $\mathcal{N}=1$ in $D=4$. The corresponding generalised special holonomy group is $SU(7)$, giving the natural M theory extension to the notion of a $G_2$ manifold, and, for Type II backgrounds, reformulating the pure spinor $SU(3)\times SU(3)$ conditions as an integrable structure.

Christian G. Boehmer, Matthew Wright

Hartle's slow rotation formalism is developed in the presence of a cosmological constant. We find the generalisation of the Hartle-Thorne vacuum metric, the Hartle-Thorne-(anti)-de Sitter metric, and find that it is always asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter. Next we consider Wahlquist's rotating perfect fluid interior solution in Hartle's formalism and discuss its matching to the Hartle-Thorne-(anti)-de Sitter metric. It is known that the Wahlquist solution cannot be matched to an asymptotically flat region and therefore does not provide a model of an isolated rotating body in this context. However, in the presence of a cosmological term, we find that it can be matched to an asymptotic (anti)-de Sitter space and we are able to interpret the Wahlquist solution as a model of an isolated rotating body, to second order in the angular velocity.

Francesca Calore, Ilias Cholis, Christopher McCabe, Christoph Weniger

Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. 2014. We find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into $\bar{b}b$, we find that even large DM masses up to $m_\chi \simeq$ 74 GeV are allowed with a $p$-value $> 0.05$. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into non-relativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from $\mu^+\mu^-$ with $m_\chi\sim$ 60-70 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, $

Sam Young, Christian T. Byrnes

The effects of non-gaussianity on the constraints on the primordial curvature perturbation power spectrum from primordial black holes (PBHs) are considered. We extend previous analyses to include the effects of coupling between the modes of the horizon scale at the time the PBH forms and super-horizon modes. We consider terms of up to third order in the Gaussian perturbation. For the weakest constraints on the abundance of PBHs in the early universe (corresponding to a fractional energy density of PBHs of $10^{-5}$ at the time of formation), in the case of gaussian perturbations, constraints on the power spectrum are $\mathcal{P}_{\zeta}<0.05$ but can significantly tighter when even a small amount of non-gaussianity is considered, to $\mathcal{P}_{\zeta}<0.01$, and become approximately $\mathcal{P}_{\zeta}<0.003$ in more special cases. Surprisingly, even when there is negative skew (which naively would suggest fewer areas of high density, leading to weaker constraints), we find that the constraints on the power spectrum become tighter than the purely gaussian case - in strong contrast with previous results. We find that the constraints are highly sensitive to both the non-gaussianity parameters as well as the amplitude of super-horizon perturbations.

Donough Regan, Gemma J. Anderson, Matthew Hull, David Seery

In this short paper, we present constraints on the Galileon inflationary model from the CMB bispectrum. We employ a principal-component analysis of the independent degrees of freedom constrained by data and apply this to the WMAP 9-year data to constrain the free parameters of the model. A simple Bayesian comparison establishes that support for the Galileon model from bispectrum data is at best weak.

Sarah Schon, Katherine J. Mack, Cassandra A. Avram,

We investigate the impact of energy released from self-annihilating dark matter on heating of gas in the small, high-redshift dark matter halos thought to host the first stars. A SUSY neutralino like particle is implemented as our dark matter candidate. The PYTHIA code is used to model the final, stable particle distributions produced during the annihilation process. We use an analytic treatment in conjunction with the code MEDEA2 to find the energy transfer and subsequent partition into heating, ionizing and Lyman alpha photon components. We consider a number of halo density models, dark matter particle masses and annihilation channels. We find that the injected energy from dark matter exceeds the binding energy of the gas within a $10^5$ - $10^6$ M$_\odot$ halo at redshifts above 20, preventing star formation in early halos in which primordial gas would otherwise cool. Thus we find that DM annihilation could delay the formation of the first galaxies.

Donough Regan, Mark Hindmarsh

We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings.

Gert Aarts, Felipe Attanasio, Benjamin Jäger,

Simulations of QCD with a finite chemical potential typically lead to a severe sign problem, prohibiting any standard Monte Carlo approach. Complex Langevin simulations provide an alternative to sample path integrals with oscillating weight factors and therefore potentially enable the determination of the phase diagram of QCD. Here we present results for QCD in the limit of heavy quarks and show evidence that the phase diagram can be mapped out by direct simulation. We apply adaptive step-size scaling and adaptive gauge cooling to ensure the convergence of these simulations.

Tim Gershon, Thomas Latham, Rafael Silva Coutinho

The three-body charmless hadronic decay $B^0_s \rightarrow K^{0}_{\rm S} \pi^{+}\pi^{-}$ provides a number of novel possibilities to search for CP violation effects and test the Standard Model of particle physics. These include fits to the Dalitz-plot distributions of the decay-time-integrated final state, decay-time-dependent (but without initial state flavour tagging) fits to the Dalitz-plot distribution, as well as full decay-time-dependent and flavour tagged fits. The relative sensitivities of these different approaches are investigated.

Ross Altman, James Gray, Yang-Hui He,

Kreuzer and Skarke famously produced the largest known database of Calabi-Yau threefolds by providing a complete construction of all 473,800,776 reflexive polyhedra that exist in four dimensions. These polyhedra describe the singular limits of ambient toric varieties in which Calabi-Yau threefolds can exist as hypersurfaces. In this paper, we review how to extract topological and geometric information about Calabi-Yau threefolds using the toric construction, and we provide, in a companion online database (see http://nuweb1.neu.edu/cydatabase), a detailed inventory of these quantities which are of interest to physicists. Many of the singular ambient spaces described by the Kreuzer-Skarke list can be smoothed out into multiple distinct toric ambient spaces describing different Calabi-Yau threefolds. We provide a list of the different Calabi-Yau threefolds which can be obtained from each polytope, up to current computational limits. We then give the details of a variety of quantities associated to each of these Calabi-Yau such as Chern classes, intersection numbers, and the K\"ahler and Mori cones, in addition to the Hodge data. This data forms a useful starting point for a number of physical applications of the Kreuzer-Skarke list.

Adi Zitrin, Agnese Fabris, Julian Merten,

We present results from a comprehensive lensing analysis in HST data, of the complete CLASH cluster sample. We identify new multiple-images previously undiscovered allowing improved or first constraints on the cluster inner mass distributions and profiles. We combine these strong-lensing constraints with weak-lensing shape measurements within the HST FOV to jointly constrain the mass distributions. The analysis is performed in two different common parameterizations (one adopts light-traces-mass for both galaxies and dark matter while the other adopts an analytical, elliptical NFW form for the dark matter), to provide a better assessment of the underlying systematics - which is most important for deep, cluster-lensing surveys, especially when studying magnified high-redshift objects. We find that the typical (median), relative systematic differences throughout the central FOV are $\sim40\%$ in the (dimensionless) mass density, $\kappa$, and $\sim20\%$ in the magnification, $\mu$. We show maps of these differences for each cluster, as well as the mass distributions, critical curves, and 2D integrated mass profiles. For the Einstein radii ($z_{s}=2$) we find that all typically agree within $10\%$ between the two models, and Einstein masses agree, typically, within $\sim15\%$. At larger radii, the total projected, 2D integrated mass profiles of the two models, within $r\sim2\arcmin$, differ by $\sim30\%$. Stacking the surface-density profiles of the sample from the two methods together, we obtain an average slope of $d\log (\Sigma)/d\log(r)\sim-0.64\pm0.1$, in the radial range [5,350] kpc. Lastly, we also characterize the behavior of the average magnification, surface density, and shear differences between the two models, as a function of both the radius from the center, and the best-fit values of these quantities.

Houri Ziaeepour

The origin of accelerating expansion of the Universe is one the biggest conundrum of fundamental physics. In this paper we review vacuum energy issues as the origin of accelerating expansion - generally called dark energy - and give an overview of alternatives, which a large number of them can be classified as interacting scalar field models. We review properties of these models both as classical field and as quantum condensates in the framework of non-equilibrium quantum field theory. Finally, we review phenomenology of models with the goal of discriminating between them.